Advertisement

Food Security

, Volume 8, Issue 5, pp 953–971 | Cite as

Household food security and biofuel feedstock production in rural Mozambique and Tanzania

  • Stephen ThornhillEmail author
  • Eszter Vargyas
  • Tony Fitzgerald
  • Nick Chisholm
Original Paper

Abstract

The ongoing debate over the impact of biofuels on food security makes it difficult for governments to develop clear policies for an industry that can enhance rural employment and help to alleviate rural poverty, but may also reduce food availability and raise food prices. Whilst there have been many studies reporting a wide range of global commodity price impacts arising from the sharp rise in biofuel use over the past decade, there has been less evidence on food security impacts at a local level in developing countries. Where evidence does exist the impact is difficult to assess, often due to different types of production models and feedstocks, but also due to weaknesses in the methodologies and measures of food security used. This paper aims to help address this evidence gap by analysing household survey data from sites close to different types of biofuel operations in Mozambique and Tanzania, using an index that measures key macronutrient and micronutrient deficits at the household level. The results show that those households with employees in medium to large-scale biofuel feedstock operations achieved significantly higher food security outcomes than other households in the same locations. Furthermore, most of the households with better food security outcomes reported an improvement in food security since the biofuel operations had been established and attributed this mainly to increased and more regular income from salaried employment.

Keywords

Biofuels Food security Outgrowers Plantations Mozambique Tanzania 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Siwa Msangi at the International Food Policy Research Institute, Kimberley Pfeifer at Oxfam America, Annie Sugrue at EcoSasa Developments and Anne Bogdanski at the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation, as well as the researchers at University College Cork, University of Dar es Salaam and Eduardo Mondliane University and the translators who assisted so ably with the survey work. Thanks also to the participation of biofuel company staff, and, most importantly, the families who participated in the household surveys at the various field locations.

References

  1. ActionAid Tanzania (2010). Implication of biofuels production on food security in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: Action Aid Tanzania.Google Scholar
  2. Anderman, T. L., Remans, R., Wood, S. A., DeRosa, K., & DeFries, R. S. (2014). Synergies and tradeoffs between cash crop production and food security: a case study in rural Ghana. Food Security, 6(4), 541–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arndt, C., Msangi, S., & Thurlow, J. (2010). Are biofuels good for african development? an analytical framework with evidence from Mozambique and Tanzania. UNU-WIDER Working Paper No 2010/110. Helsinki, Finland: United Nations University. World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER).Google Scholar
  4. Atanassov, B. (2013). The status of biofuels projects in Mozambique. London: Overseas Development Institute.Google Scholar
  5. Bailey, R. (2008). Another Incovenient Truth How biofuel policies are deepening poverty and accelerating climate change. London: Oxfam International.Google Scholar
  6. Balachandran, L., Herb, E., Timirzi, S., & O’Reilly, E. (2012). Everyone must eat? Liberia, food security and palm oil. Paper presented at the International Conference on Global Land Grabbing II. Land Deals Politics Initiative, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 17-19 October 2012.Google Scholar
  7. Barret, C. B. (2010). Measuring food insecurity. Science, 327, 825–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boamah, F. (2011). The relationship between land grabbing for biofuels and food security, a Bane or Boon? The food security implications of jatropha biodiesel project in Northern Ghana. Paper presented at the International Conference on Global Land Grabbing. Land Deals Politics Initiative (LDPI), Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, 6-8 April 2011.Google Scholar
  9. Bosch, C., & Zeller, M. (2013). The impacts of wage employment on a jatropha plantation on income and food security of rural households in Madagascar - A panel data analysis. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 52(2), 119–140.Google Scholar
  10. Bunner, N. M. (2009). Analysis of the socio-economic situation of households in the vicinity of a Jatropha plantation in Madagascar. University of Hohenheim, Hohenheim.Google Scholar
  11. Carletto, C., Zezza, A., & Banerjee, R. (2013). Towards better measurement of household food security: Harmonizing indicators and the role of household surveys. Global Food Security, 2(1), 30–40. doi: 10.1016/j.gfs.2012.11.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coates, J. (2013). Build it back better: deconstructing food security for improved measurement and action. Global Food Security, 2(3), 188–194. doi: 10.1016/j.gfs.2013.05.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Constantin, A. L. (2008). A time of high prices: An opportunity for the rural poor? Minneapolis, Minnesota: Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy.Google Scholar
  14. Cortez, L., Leal, M. R. L. V., & Sinkala, T. (2010). Why biofuels are important In F. Rosillo-Calle, & F. Johnson (Eds.), Food versus Fuel. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  15. de Haen, H., Klasen, S., & Qaim, M. (2011). What do we really know? Metrics for food insecurity and undernutrition. Food Policy,, 36(6), 760–769. doi: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2011.08.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Deitchler, M., Ballard, T., Swindale, A., & Coates, J. (2010). Validation of a measure of household hunger for cross-cultural use. Washington DC: Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II Project (FANTA-2), AED.Google Scholar
  17. Dufey, A. (2008). Exploring new sectors for attracting FDI: The case of biofuels. In A. Dufey, M. Grieg-Gran, & H. Ward (Eds.), Responsible enterprise, foreign direct investment and investment promotion. Key issues in attracting investment for sustainable development. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.Google Scholar
  18. Eide, A. (2008). The Right to Food and the Impact of Liquid Biofuels (Agrofuels). Right to Food Studies. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  19. FAO (2007). Guidelines for measuring household and individual dietary diversity. (Version 3 ed.). Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  20. FAO (2008). An introduction to the basic concepts of food security. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UN.Google Scholar
  21. FAO, WHO, & UNU (2004). Human energy requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. Food and Nutrition Technical Report Series. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO).Google Scholar
  22. Gomiero, T., Paoletti, M. G., & Pimentel, D. (2009). Biofuels: efficiency, ethics, and limits to human appropriation of ecosystem services. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 23(5), 403–434. doi: 10.1007/s10806-009-9218-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grass, M., & Zeller, M. (2011). Rural employment and income effects of a jatropha plantation in Madagascar. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 50(4), 347–368.Google Scholar
  24. Hanlon, J., Mousseau, F., Mittal, A., & Tandon, N. (2011). Understanding land investment deals in Africa. Country Report: Mozambique. Oakland, CA: The Oakland Institute.Google Scholar
  25. Headey, D., & Ecker, O. (2013). Rethinking the measurement of food security: from first principles to best practice. Food Security, 5(3), 327–343. doi: 10.1007/s12571-013-0253-0. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hodbod, J., & Tomei, J. (2013). Demystifying the social impacts of biofuels at local levels: Where is the evidence? Geography Compass, 478–488.Google Scholar
  27. Jones, A. D., Ngure, F. M., Pelto, G., & Young, S. L. (2013). What are we assessing when we measure food security? A compendium and review of current metrics. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, 4(5), 481–505. doi: 10.3945/an.113.004119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kamanga, K. C., (2008). The agrofuel Industry in Tanzania: A critical enquiry into challenges and opportunities. Dar Es Salaam: Land Rights Research and Resources Institute (LARRRI/HAKIARDHI).Google Scholar
  29. Kant, P., & Wu, S. (2011). The extraordinary collapse of jatropha as a global biofuel. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(17), 7114–7115. doi: 10.1021/es201943v.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kojima, M., & Johnson, T. (2006). Potential for biofuels transport in developing countries. ESMAP Knowledge Exchange Series No 4. Washington DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  31. Leroy, J. L., Ruel, M., Frongillo, E. A., Harris, J., & Ballard, T. J. (2015). Measuring the food access dimension of food security: A critical review and mapping of indicators. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 36(2), 167–195. doi: 10.1177/0379572115587274.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Leturque, H., & Wiggins, S. (2009). Biofuels: Could the South benefit? Briefing Paper 48. London: Overseas Development Institute.Google Scholar
  33. Locher, M., & Sulle, E. (2014). Foreign land deals in Tanzania. An update and a critical view on the challenges of data (re)production. LDPI Working Paper No 31. The Hague: Land Deals Politics Initiative (LDPI), International Institute of Social Studies (ISS).Google Scholar
  34. Locke, A., & Henley, G. (2013). Scoping report on biofuels projects in five developing countries. London: Overseas Development Institute.Google Scholar
  35. Locke, A., & Henley, G. (2014). Biofuels and food security. What does the evidence say? London: Overseas Development Institute.Google Scholar
  36. Lukmanji, Z., Hertzmark, E., Mlingi, N., Assey, V., Ndossi, G., & Fawzi, W. (2008). Tanzania Food Composition Tables. (1st ed.). Dar Es Salaam: Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre, Muhimbili University College of Health and Allied Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health.Google Scholar
  37. Maertens, M., & Swinnen, J. F. M. (2009). Trade, standards, and poverty: evidence from Senegal. World Development, 37(1), 161–178. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.04.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Maltsoglou, I., Koizumi, T., & Felix, E. (2013). The status of bioenergy development in developing countries. Global Food Security, 2(2), 104–109. doi: 10.1016/j.gfs.2013.04.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Markensten, K., & Mouk, B. (2012). Mid-term review of the biofuel project support to the Ministry of Energy and Minerals, Tanzania. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA).Google Scholar
  40. Maxwell, S., & Smith, M. (1992). Household Food Security: A Conceptual Review. In S. Maxwell & T. R. Frankenberger (Eds.), Household Food Security: Concepts, Indicators, Measurements. New York: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  41. Maxwell, D., Coates, J., & Vaitla, B. (2013). How do different indicators of household food security compare? Empirical evidence from Tigray. Medford, USA: Feinstein International Center, Tufts University.Google Scholar
  42. Mitchell, D. (2011). Biofuels in Africa. Opportunities, Prospects and Challenges. Washington DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  43. Msangi, S., & Evans, M. (2013). Biofuels and developing economies: is the timing right? Agricultural Economics, 44(4–5), 501–510. doi: 10.1111/agec.12033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. NBS (2011). Tanzania demographic and health survey 2010. Dar Es Salaam: National Bureau of Statistics Tanzania.Google Scholar
  45. Negash, M., & Swinnen, J. F. M. (2013). Biofuels and food security: Micro-evidence from Ethiopia. Energy Policy, 61, 963–976. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.06.031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Peters, F. (2009). Socio-economic impact study of biofuel plantation of farm households in Mozambique. Competing Claims. Wageningen, Netherlands: Wageningen University and Research Centre and the Netherland’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs.Google Scholar
  47. Pimental, D., Marklein, A., Toth, M., Karpoff, M. N., Paul, G. S., Robert, M., et al. (2010). Why we should not be using biofuels. In F. Rosillo-Calle, & F. Johnson (Eds.), Food versus Fuel. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  48. Pohl, C. (2010). Jatropha: money doesn’t grow on trees. Ten reasons why jatropha is neither a profitable nor sustainable investment. Agrofuels and Corporates. Issue 120. Amsterdam: Friends of the Earth International.Google Scholar
  49. Portale, E. (2012). Socio-Economic Sustainability of Biofuel Production in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from a Jatropha Outgrower Model in Rural Tanzania. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs (BCSIA) Discussion Paper 201201. Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  50. Prowse, M. (2012). Contract farming in developing countries - A review. A savoir. Paris: Agence Francaise de Developpement.Google Scholar
  51. Rosillo-Calle, F., & Johnson, F. (2010). Food versus Fuel: An Informed Introduction to Biofuels. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  52. Sahin, S., Prowse, M., & Weigh, N. (2014). Agriculture and private sector. Agriculture and growth evidence paper series. London: Department for International Development (DFID).Google Scholar
  53. Schoneveld, G. C., German, L. A., & Nutakor, E. (2011). Land-based investments for rural development? A grounded analysis of the local impacts of biofuel feedstock plantations in Ghana. Ecology and Society, 16((4). doi: 10.5751/es-04424-160410.
  54. Schut, M., Slingerland, M., & Locke, A. (2010). Biofuel developments in Mozambique. Update and analysis of policy, potential and reality. Energy Policy, 38(9), 5151–5165. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2010.04.048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Searchinger, T., Heimlich, R., Houghton, R. A., Dong, F., Elobeid, A., Fabiosa, J., et al. (2008). Use of U.S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land-use change. Science, 319(5867), 1238–1240. doi: 10.1126/science.1151861.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Smith, L., Alderman, H., & Aduayom, D. (2006). Food insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa. New Estimates from Household Expenditure Surveys. Washington DC: IFPRI.Google Scholar
  57. Songela, F., & MacLean, A. (2008). Scoping exercise (situation analysis) on the biofuels industry within and outside Tanzania. Report submitted to the World Wildlife Fund - Tanzania Programme Office. Dar Es Salaam: Energy for Sustainable Development. Google Scholar
  58. Stockbridge, M. (2007). All Africa review of experiences with commercial agriculture: background paper for the competitive agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (CCAA) Study. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UN.Google Scholar
  59. Street, J. O., Carroll, R. J., & Ruppert, D. (1988). A note on computing robust regression via iteratively reweighted least squares. The American Statistician, 42(2), 152–154.Google Scholar
  60. Sulle, E., & Nelson, F. (2009). Biofuels, land access and rural livelihoods in Tanzania. London: IIED.Google Scholar
  61. von Maltitz, G., Sugrue, A., Gush, M. B., Everson, C., Borman, G., & Blanchard, R. (2012). Environmental and socioeconomic considerations for jatropha growing in Southern Africa. In A. Gasparatos, & P. Stromberg (Eds.), Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: Evidence from Developing Nations. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  62. WFP (2008). Food Consumption Analysis: Calculation and use of the food consumption score in food security analysis. Technical Guidance Sheet. Rome: World Food Programme.Google Scholar
  63. WFP (2010). Comprehensive food security and vulnerability analysis. Republica de Mocambique. Maputo: World Food Programme.Google Scholar
  64. WHO, & FAO (2004). Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition. Second edition. Geneva: World Health Organisation.Google Scholar
  65. WHO, FAO, & UNU (2007). Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition. report of a joint WHO/FAO/UNU expert consultation. Geneva: World Health Organisation.Google Scholar
  66. Wiggins, S., Keane, J., Kennan, J., Leturque, H., & Stevens, C. (2013). Biofuels in Eastern Africa: dangers yes, but much potential as well. Project Briefing. London: Overseas Development Institute.Google Scholar
  67. Ziegler, J. (2007). The right to food. Note by the secretary general from the Special Rapporteur on the right to food. New York: United Nations General Assembly - 62nd Session, 22 August, 2007.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and International Society for Plant Pathology 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Thornhill
    • 1
    Email author
  • Eszter Vargyas
    • 2
  • Tony Fitzgerald
    • 2
  • Nick Chisholm
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Business and DevelopmentUniversity College CorkCorkIreland
  2. 2.School of Mathematical SciencesUniversity College CorkCorkIreland

Personalised recommendations