Food Security

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 361–374 | Cite as

Food security through increasing technical efficiency and reducing postharvest losses of rice production systems in Bangladesh

  • S. Majumder
  • B. K. BalaEmail author
  • Fatimah Mohamed Arshad
  • M. A. Haque
  • M. A. Hossain
Original Paper


Rice accounts for nearly 70 % of calories consumed in Bangladesh. Therefore, any effort to improve food security in the country must find ways to increase availability of rice. This paper investigates two of these ways: increasing technical efficiency of rice production and reducing post-harvest losses. Technical efficiency was measured from Cobb-Douglas and translog production functions for the rice production seasons Aus (spring), Aman (summer) and Boro (winter). Efficiency estimates ranged from 73 to 83 %, suggesting that the potential exists for substantial increases in rice production while continuing to use current technologies and inputs. Variables influencing technical efficiency were farm size, level of famers’ education, farmers’ experience in production, microcredit, training and extension. Post-harvest losses between farmer and retailer were estimated at 10–12 %, suggesting potentially an additional source of rice without changes in production. Reduction of postharvest losses were significantly related to the availability of extension services.


Stochastic production frontier Translog Technical efficiency Postharvest loss Rice Food security 



The financial support of the FAO for this study under National Food Policy Capacity Strengthing Programme (CF-6). We also acknowledge the constructive criticisms and suggestions of the Sr. Editor and Associate Editor.


  1. Aigner, D. K., Lovell, C. K., & Schmidt, P. (1977). Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models. Journal of Economics, 6, 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alam, M. J., Van Huylenbroeck, G., Buysse, J., Begum, I. A., & Rahman, S. (2011). Technical efficiency changes at the farm-level: A panel data analysis of rice farms in Bangladesh. African Journal of Business Management, 5(14), 5559–5566.Google Scholar
  3. Alemu BA, Nuppenau EA, Boland H (2009) Technical Efficiency of Farming Systems across Agro-Ecological Zones in Ethiopia: An Application of Stochastic Frontier Analysis, http:/
  4. Amara, N., Traore, N., Landry, R., & Romain, R. (1999). Technical efficiency and farmer’s attitudes toward technological innovations: the case of the potato farmers in Quebec. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 47, 31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. BBS (2011) Statistical Pocketbook Bangladesh 2011. (Dhaka: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 2011)Google Scholar
  6. Bäckman, S., Islam, K. M. Z., & Sumelius, J. (2011). Determinants of efficiency of rice farms in north-central and north-western regions in Bangladesh. The Journal of Developing Areas, 45(1), 73–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bala, B. K. (1978). Post harvest losses of paddy in Bangladesh. Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, 9(4), 54–56.Google Scholar
  8. Bala BK (1997) Drying and storage of cereal grains. Delhi: Oxford & IBH: Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  9. Bala BK, Haque MA, Hossain MA, Majumdar S (2010) Post harvest loss and technical efficiency of rice, wheat and maize production system: Assessment and measures for strengthening food security. National Food policy Capacity Strengthening Programme, Report # 6/08, FAO Office, Dhaka, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  10. Bala, B. K. (2012). Agricultural development strategy for Hill Tracts of Chittagong. Final report. Rangamati, Bangladesh: UNDP.Google Scholar
  11. Bakhsh, K., Ahmad, B., & Hassan, S. (2006). Food security through increasing technical efficiency. Asian Journal of Plant Science, 5(6), 970–976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Balcombe, K., Fraser, I., Rahman, M., & Smith, L. (2007). Examining technical efficiency of rice producers in Bangladesh. Journal of International Development, 19, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Banik, A. (1994). Technical efficiency of irrigated farms in a village of Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 49(1), 70–78.Google Scholar
  14. Basappa, G., Deshmanya, J. B., & Patil, B. L. (2007). Post harvest losses of maize crop in Karnataka - An economic analysis. Karnataka. Journal of Agricultural Science, 20(1), 69–71.Google Scholar
  15. Basavaraja, H., Mahajanashetti, S. B., & Udagatti, N. C. (2007). Economic analysis of post harvest losses in food grains in India: A case study of Karnataka. Agricultural Economic Research And Reviews, 20, 117–126.Google Scholar
  16. Battese, G. & Coelli, T. (1988). Prediction of farm level technical efficiencies with a generalized frontier production function and panel data. Empirical Economics, 38, 387–399.Google Scholar
  17. Battese, G. & Coelli, T. (1995). A model for technical inefficiency effects in stochastic frontier production function for panel data. Empirical Economics, 20(2), 325–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Begum, E. A., Hossain, M. I., & Papanagiotou, E. (2012). Economic analysis of post-harvest losses in food grains for strengthening food security in Northern Regions of Bangladesh. IJAR-BAE, 1(3), 26–38.Google Scholar
  19. Binam, J. N., Tonye, J., Wandji, N., Nyambi, G., & Akoa, M. (2004). Factors affecting the technical efficiency among smallholder farmers in the slash and Burn agriculture zone of Cameroon. Food Policy, 29, 531–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bozoglu, M. & Ceyhan, V. (2007). Measuring the technical efficiency and exploring the efficiency determinants of vegetable farms in Samsun province, Turkey. Agricultural Systems, 94, 649–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bravo-Ureta, B. E. & Evenson, R. E. (1994). Efficiency in agricultural production: the case of peasant farmers in Eastern Paraguay. Agricultural Economics, 10, 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coelli, T. J. (1996). A Guide to FRONTIER Version 4.1: A computer program for stochastic frontier production and cost function estimation. CEPA working papers No. 7/96. Department of Econometrics: University of New England, Armidalr.Google Scholar
  23. Coelli, T., Rahman, S., & Thirtle, C. (2002). Technical allocative cost and scale efficiencies in Bangladesh rice cultivation: A non-parametric approach. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 53, 607–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Coelli, T., Rahman, S., & Thirtle, C. (2003). A stochastic frontier approach to total factor productivity measurement in Bangladesh crop agriculture, 1961-92. Journal of International Development, 15, 321–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Farrel, M. J. (1957). The measurement of productive efficiency. Journal of Royal Statistical Society, 120, 253–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fermont A, Benson T (2011) Estimating yield of food crops grown by smallholder farmersA review in Uganda context. IFPRI Discussion paper 01087. International Food Policy Research InstituteGoogle Scholar
  27. Hallam, D. & Machado, F. (1996). Efficiency analysis with panel data: A study of Portuguese dairy farms. European Reviews of Agricultural Economics, 23, 79–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Islam, K. M. Z., Sumelius, J., & Bäckman, S. (2012). Do differences in technical efficiency explain the adoption rate of HYV rice? evidence from Bangladesh. Agricultural Economic Review, 13(1), 93–109.Google Scholar
  29. Jha, R. K., Gyawali, L. K., Regmi, A. P., & Ghimire, A. (2007). Paudyal KR. Nepal: Impacts of participatory extension program on technical efficiency Kathmandu.Google Scholar
  30. Khan, A., Huda, F. F. A., & Alam, A. (2010). Farm household technical efficiency: A study on rice producers in selected areas of Jamalpur district in Bangladesh. European Journal of Social Science, 14(2), 262–271.Google Scholar
  31. Kodde, D. A. & Palm, F. C. (1986). ‘Wald criteria for jointly testing equality and inequality restrictions: notes and comments. Econometrica, 54(5), 1243–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Larsen AF, Lilleor HB (2014) Beyond the field: The impact of farmer field schools on food security poverty alleviation. World Development, 64, 843–859.Google Scholar
  33. Meeusen, W. & Van den Broeck, J. (1977). Efficiency estimation from Cobb-Douglas production functions with composed error. International Economic Review, 18, 435–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Myint, T. & Kyi, T. (2005). Analysis of technical efficiency of irrigated rice production system in Myanmar: conference on international agricultural research for development held on October 11–13, 2005. Germany: Suttgart-Hohenheim.Google Scholar
  35. Ojehomon, V. E. T., Ayinde, O. E., Adewumi, M. O., & Omotesho, O. A. (2013). Determinant of technical efficiency of new rice for Africa (NERICA) production: A gender approach. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies And Management, 6(5), 453–460.Google Scholar
  36. Oladimeji, A. Y. U. & Abdulsalam, Z. (2013). Analysis of technical efficiency and its determinants among small scale rice farmers in patigi local Government area of kwara state, Nigeria. IOSR. Journal of Agricultural and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS), 3(3), 34–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Omondi, S. O. & Shikuku, K. M. (2013). An analysis of technical efficiency of rice farmers in ahero irrigation scheme, Kenya. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 4(10), 1–12.Google Scholar
  38. Rahman, S. (2003). Profit efficiency among Bangladeshi rice farmers. Food Policy, 28, 487–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rahman, S. (2008). Productivity and efficiency issues in Bangladesh agriculture. USA: Nova Publishers.Google Scholar
  40. Reddy, A. R. & Sen, C. (2004). Technical efficiency in rice production and its relationship with farm-specific socio-economic characteristics. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 59(2), 259–267.Google Scholar
  41. Ruttan VW (2002) Productivity growth in world agriculture: Sources and Constraints. Staff paper-P02-1®, University of Minnesota, USAGoogle Scholar
  42. Sarker, D. & De, S. (2004). High technical efficiency of farms in two different agricultural lands: A study under deterministic production frontier approach. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 59(2), 197–208.Google Scholar
  43. Schultz, T. (1964). Transforming traditional agriculture. USA: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  44. Shanmugam, K. R. & VenkatarAmani, A. (2006). Technical efficiency in agricultural production and its determinants: An exploratory study at the district level. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 61(2), 169–184.Google Scholar
  45. Stephens, E. C., Nicholson, C. F., Brown, D. R., Parsons, D., Barrett, C. B., Lehmann, J., et al. (2012). Modeling the impact of natural resource-based poverty traps on food security in Kenya: the crops, livestock and soils in Smallholder Economic Systems (CLASSES) model. Food Security, 4(3), 423–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Vangelis, T., Pantzios, C. J., & Fotopoulos, C. (2001). Tethnical efficiency of alternative farming systems: the case of Greek organic and conventional olive-growing farms. Food Policy, 26, 549–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and International Society for Plant Pathology 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Majumder
    • 1
  • B. K. Bala
    • 2
    Email author
  • Fatimah Mohamed Arshad
    • 2
  • M. A. Haque
    • 3
  • M. A. Hossain
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural StatisticsBangladesh Agricultural UniversityMymensinghBangladesh
  2. 2.Institute of Agricultural and Food Policy StudiesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Farm Power and MachineryBangladesh Agricultural UniversityMymensinghBangladesh
  4. 4.Bangladesh Agricultural Research InstituteGazipurBangladesh

Personalised recommendations