Food Security

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 291–302

Food and biosecurity: livestock production and towards a world free of foot-and-mouth disease

Original Paper

Abstract

A key challenge for global livestock production is the prevalence of infectious animal diseases. These diseases result in low productivity in meat and dairy production, culled animals, and significant barriers to trade and lost income from meat and meat products. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) affects both developing countries, where it is often endemic and very costly, and developed countries where incursions result in considerable economic losses in the order of billions of dollars per year. In some cases, production levels of pork meat in developed countries have still not recovered to levels prior to past disease incursions, more than a decade ago. In developing countries, the export of animal products has exhibited sluggish growth for decades, constrained by ongoing animal disease problems. We make three contributions. First, we provide an overview of worldwide meat production, consumption and trade in the context of FMD. Second, we provide insights into the economics of biosecurity measures and how these activities should be optimally designed to enhance livestock production. Third, we analyse a case study of an FMD-endemic country, Vietnam, which has been trying to achieve FMD-free status for some time. Lessons learnt from this case study shed light on the challenges in achieving FMD-free status in developing countries, which is useful for a global FMD control strategy and the promotion of world food security.

Keywords

Livestock production Trade Biosecurity Foot-and-mouth disease Vietnam 

References

  1. Alexandratos, N., & Bruinsma, J. (2012). World agriculture towards 2030/2050: the 2012 revision. ESA Working paper No. 12–03. FAO: Rome.Google Scholar
  2. Bouma, A., Elbers, A., Dekker, A., De Koeijer, A., Bartels, C., Vellema, P., et al. (2003). The foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in the Netherlands in 2001. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 57(3), 155–166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cacho, O. J., Hester, S. M., & Spring, D. (2007). Applying search theory to determine the feasibility of eradicating an invasive population in natural environments. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 51, 425–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. CNN (2014). Foot and mouth disease fast facts. Available at http://edition.cnn.com/2013/09/02/health/foot-and-mouth-disease-fast-facts/. Accessed 14 Nov 2014.
  5. Condy, J., Hedger, R., Hamblin, C., & Barnett, I. (1985). The duration of the foot-and-mouth disease virus carrier state in African buffalo (i) in the individual animal and (ii) in a free-living herd. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 8(3), 259–265.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cook, D., Carrasco, L., Paini, D., & Fraser, R. (2011). Estimating the social welfare effects of New Zealand apple imports. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 55(4), 599–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. DAH (2011) Report on prevention and protection of livestock and poultry diseases in 2011 and plan for 2012. In Vietnamese: “Bao cao tong ket cong tac phong chong benh gia suc gia cam nam 2011 and phuong huong nam 2012”. Hanoi: Department of Animal Health, Epidemiology Division.Google Scholar
  8. FAO (2002) Committee on commodity problems. intergovernmental group on meat and dairy products - animal diseases: Implications for international meat trade. 19th session, 27–29 August 2002. Available at www.fao.org/docrep/MEETING/004/y6975e.htm. Accessed 7 Nov 2014.
  9. FAO (2007) Foot-and-mouth disease: Situation worldwide and major epodemiological events in 2005–2006. Focus on… Issue No 1. Available at http://www.fao.org/3/a-ai339e.pdf. Accessed 7 Nov 2014.
  10. FAO. (2013). World livestock 2013: changing disease landscapes. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  11. FAO. (2014). FAO statistics. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Statistics Division.Google Scholar
  12. Food Safety News (2014) Foot & mouth may taint South Korean bottled water. Available at http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2011/05/south-korea-foot-mouth-disease-threat-to-bottled-water/#.VGK98UsVqf0. Accessed 14 Nov 2014.
  13. GAO (2002) Foot and mouth disease: to protect US livestock, USDA must remain vigilant and resolve outstanding issues. United States General Accounting Office. Report to the Honorable Tom Daschle, US Senate.Google Scholar
  14. Gohin, A., & Rault, A. (2013). Assessing the economic costs of a foot and mouth disease outbreak on Brittany: a dynamic computable general equilibrium analysis. Food Policy, 39, 97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grubman, M. J., & Baxt, B. (2004). Foot-and-mouth disease. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 17(2), 465–493.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. GSO. (2000). Statistical yearbook of Vietnam 1999. Hanoi: Statistical publishing house.Google Scholar
  17. GSO. (2007). Results of the 2006 rural, agricultural and fishery census. Hanoi: Statistical publishing house.Google Scholar
  18. GSO. (2009). Statistical yearbook of Vietnam 2008. Hanoi: Statistical publishing house.Google Scholar
  19. GSO. (2011). Statistical yearbook of Vietnam 2011. Hanoi: Statistical publishing house.Google Scholar
  20. Ha, Y. (2014). Imported meat, 3-year plan to seize Vietnamese market. In Vietnamese “Thit nhap ngoai, ke hoach 3 nam chiem thi truong Viet”. Vietnam net. Available at http://vietnamnet.vn/vn/kinh-te/166688/thit-ngoai-nhap–ke-hoach-3-nam-chiem-thi-truong-viet.html. Accessed 5 Dec 2014.
  21. Ha, P.V., Nguyen, H.T.M., Kompas, T., Che, T.N. & Trinh, B. (2015) Rice production, trade and the poor: regional effects of rice export policy on households in Vietnam. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 66(2), 1–28.Google Scholar
  22. Hauser, C., & McCarthy, M. (2009). Streamlining search and destroy: cost-effective surveillance for invasive species management. Ecology Letters, 12(7), 683–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. IMF (2014). International Financial Statistics. Available from http://elibrary-data.imf.org/DataExplorer.aspx. Accessed 18 Sept 2014.
  24. James, S., & Anderson, K. (1998). On the need for more economic assessment of quarantine policies. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 42(4), 425–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Knight-Jones, T., & Rushton, J. (2013). The economic impacts of foot and mouth disease–what are they, how big are they and where do they occur? Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 112(3), 161–173.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Knips, V. (2004). Review of the livestock sector in the Mekong countries. Livestock sector report Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  27. Kompas, T., & Che, T. N. (2003). A practical border quarantine measure for imported livestock. Canberra: International and Development Economics Working Papers (03–1), Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University.Google Scholar
  28. Kompas, T., Che, T. N., Cao, L., & Klijn, N. (2004). Optimal surveillance measures against an imported pest or disease: An application to papua fruit fly in Australia. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  29. Kompas, T., Nguyen, H. T. M., & Ky, V. D. (2011). Protecting the rural poor: evaluating containment measures against foot-and-mouth disease in Vietnam. In T. Nguyen (Ed.), Poverty, vulnerability and social protection in Vietnam: Selected issues (pp. 101–165). Hanoi: The Gioi Publishers.Google Scholar
  30. Kompas, T., Chu, L., Che, T., Nguyen, H., & White, K. (2013). Optimal surveillance measures against exotic weeds: An application to hawkweed in Australia. Canberra: Australian Centre for Biosecurity and Environmental Economics, Australian National University.Google Scholar
  31. Leforban, Y. (1999). Prevention measures against foot-and-mouth disease in Europe in recent years. Vaccine, 17(13), 1755–1759.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. MARD. (2001). Framework plan: foot-and-mouth disease prevention and protection in Vietnam in 2001–2004 (In Vietnamese: “Ke hoach khung: cong tac phong chong benh lo mom long mong tai Vietnam giai doan 2001–2004”. Hanoi: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.Google Scholar
  33. MARD (2005) The national program on foot-and-mouth disease control and eradication for the period 2006–2010. In Vietnamese: “Chuong trinh quoc gia khong che benh lo mom long mong giai doan 2006–2010”. Hanoi: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.Google Scholar
  34. MARD (2010). Report on implementation of the national program on foot-and-mouth disease control and eradication, period 2006–2010, proposal for period 2011–2015. In Vietnamese: “Bao cao ket qua thuc hien chuong trinh quoc gia khong che va thanh toan benh LMLM giai doan 2006–2010, de xuat giai doan 2011–2015”. Hanoi: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.Google Scholar
  35. MARD (2011). The national program on foot-and-mouth disease control and eradication, phase II: 2011–2015. In Vietnamese: “Chuong trinh quoc gia khong che benh lo mom long mong giai doan II: 2011–2015”. Hanoi: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.Google Scholar
  36. Morgan, N., & Prakash, A. (2006). International livestock markets and the impact of animal disease. Revue Scientifique et Technique, 25(2), 517–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Muroga, N., Hayama, Y., Yamamoto, T., Kurogi, A., Tsuda, T., & Tsutsui, T. (2012). The 2010 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Japan. The Journal of veterinary medical science/the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science, 74(4), 399–404.Google Scholar
  38. Nguyen, T. T. (2012). Review of works related to FMD control in Vietnam relevant to FMD PCP.. Ho Chi Minh City: Presentation in National Consultation Workshop on FMD PCP in Viet Nam, 20–21 August 2012.Google Scholar
  39. Nguyen, T. (2014). Struggle with restructuring the livestock sector. In Vietnamese “Loay hoay tai co cau nganh chan nuoi”. Hai quan newspaper online. Available at www.baohaiquan.vn/pages/loay-hoay-tai-co-cau-nganh-chan-nuoi.aspx. Accessed 5 Dec 2014.
  40. Nguyen, P. & Xuan, T. (2014). Not easy to export pork to Russia. In Vietnamese “Khong de xuat khau lon sang Nga”. Dan Viet newspaper. Available at http://danviet.vn/kinh-te-nong-nghiep/khong-de-xuat-khau-thit-lon-sang-nga-496937.html. Accessed 5 Dec 2014.
  41. OIE. (2007). SEAFMD 2020 A roadmap for foot and mouth disease freedom with vaccination by 2020 in South East Asia. Thailand: OIE.Google Scholar
  42. OIE (2012). Report on FMD in Africa. 7th meeting of the GF-TADs regional steering committee for Africa (SC7), Nairobi, 16–17 July. Available at http://www.fao.org/docs/eims/upload/304034/an398e.pdf. Accessed 14 Nov 2014.
  43. OIE & FAO (2012). The global foot and moth disease control strategy: strengthening animal health systems through improved control of major diseases. Available at http://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D11886.PDF. Accessed 7 Nov 2014.
  44. OIE (2014). Foot and mouth disease. Available at http://www.oie.int/en/animal-health-in-the-world/official-disease-status/fmd/en-fmd-carte/. Accessed 14 Nov 2014.
  45. Pan American Health Organization. (2014). Hemispheric program for the eradication of foot- and-mouth disease: Action plan 2011–2020. Brazil: Pan American Health Organization.Google Scholar
  46. Park, J. H., Lee, K. N., Ko, Y. J., Kim, S. M., Lee, H. S., Shin, Y. K., et al. (2013). Control of foot-and-mouth disease during 2010–2011 epidemic, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 655.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Productivity Commission. (2002). Impact of a foot and mouth disease outbreak on Australia. Research report. Canberra: AusInfo. Available at http://www.ava.com.au/node/1649. Accessed 5 Dec 2014.Google Scholar
  48. RUDEC (2008). Survey report. Survey on structure and changes in farming and sales systems in livestock sector. In Vietnamese “Bao cao dieu tra. Dieu tra ve co cau va bien dong phuong thuc san xuat, va tieu thu san pham trong chan nuoi”. Hanoi: Rural development centre, Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development.Google Scholar
  49. Sutmoller, P. & Olascoaga, R.C. (2002). The successful control and eradication of Foot and Mouth Disease epidemics in South America in 2001. Evidence for the Temporary Committee on Foot and Mouth Disease of the European Parliament, Meeting 2 September 2002, Strasbourg.Google Scholar
  50. Thompson, K., & Tebbens, R. (2007). Eradication versus control for poliomyelitis: an economic analysis. Lancet, 369, 1363–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Thompson, D., Muriel, P., Russell, D., Osborne, P., Bromley, A., Rowland, M., et al. (2002). Economic costs of the foot and mouth disease outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001. Revue scientifique et technique Office international des epizooties, 21(3), 675–685.Google Scholar
  52. USDA (2014). Livestock and poultry: World markets and trade. Issued in October 2014. Available at http://www.fas.usda.gov/data. Accessed 21 Nov 2014.
  53. Van, D.K., Hoang, V.N., Nguyen, V.L., Pham, Q.M., Do, H.D., Nguyen, N.T. & Ngo, T.L. (2008). Epidemilogical map of foot-and-mouth disease in 2006–2007. Research report. Animal Health Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam.Google Scholar
  54. WB (2012). Well begun, not yet done: Vietnam’s remarkable progress on poverty reduction and the emerging challenges. World Bank report No. 70798-VN.Google Scholar
  55. World Bank (2014). World Development Indicator. Available from http://data.worldbank.org/indicator. Accessed 18 Sept 2014.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and International Society for Plant Pathology 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tom Kompas
    • 1
  • Hoa Thi Minh Nguyen
    • 1
  • Pham Van Ha
    • 1
  1. 1.Crawford School of Public PolicyAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations