Food Security

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 7–24 | Cite as

Crops that feed the world 7: Rice

  • Papa Abdoulaye Seck
  • Aliou Diagne
  • Samarendu Mohanty
  • Marco C. S. Wopereis
Original Paper

Abstract

Fears about global food security led to a spike in food prices in 2008, social unrest and pushed a further 100 million people into poverty. Prices remain high and volatile. In this paper we take a closer look at rice, a crop that feeds billions of people in the world, and focus in particular on Asia and Africa. On both continents, rice is grown in a wide range of climatic conditions, from river deltas to mountainous regions. Irrigated systems dominate in Asia and rainfed systems in Africa. Predicted demands for rice remain strong. An additional 116 million tons of rice will be needed by 2035 to feed growing populations. In Africa, where rice is the most rapidly growing food source, about 30 million tons more rice will be needed by 2035, representing an increase of 130% in rice consumption from 2010. About one-third of this extra rice will be needed in Nigeria alone. In Asia, per capita consumption of rice may go down in some mid- and high-income countries. Rice farming will need to produce about 8–10 million tons more paddy per year over the next decade. Without area expansion this will require an annual yield increase of about 1.2–1.5%, equivalent to an average yield increase of 0.6 t ha−1 world-wide. Improving global food security will, therefore, necessitate concerted efforts to increase the productivity of rice per unit of land, water and/or labor in Asia and Africa, and the development of new land and water resources in a responsible and equitable manner to counteract losses due to urbanization and industrialization. During 2007–2011, productivity increases in Africa have been leading the way, with paddy rice production levels increasing by 9.5% per year, compared to 1.6% in Asia. Priorities for rice sector development include (i) continued and increased research efforts to close yield gaps and raise yield ceilings across rice growing environments through varietal development and improved rice production methods, and coping with climate change in both continents and (ii) strengthened and equitable public-private sector partnerships and conducive policy environments in Africa, with special emphasis on mechanization of rice farming from land preparation to harvest and rice processing practices.

Keywords

Rice Food security Africa Asia Food crisis Rice production 

References

  1. Adegbola, P. Y., Aminou, A., Diagne, A., & Adekambi, S. A. (2006). Evaluation de l’impact économique des nouvelles variétés de riz NERICA au Benin: evidence avec les modèles basés sur l’approche contre factuel. Paper presented at the first Africa Rice Congress Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 31 July–4 August, 2006.Google Scholar
  2. AfricaRice (2010a). New breeding directions at AfricaRice: Beyond NERICA (p. 24). Cotonou: Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice).Google Scholar
  3. Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice) (2009). Story of the month. http://www.warda.org/warda/story-birds.asp . accessed June, 2010.
  4. AfricaRice (2010b). Rice data systems for Sub-Saharan Africa: Contribution to the Japan-AfricaRice emergency rice project synthesis report (p. 73). Cotonou: Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice).Google Scholar
  5. AfricaRice (2011a). Boosting Africa’s rice Sector A research for development strategy 2011–2020 (p. 84). Cotonou: Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice).Google Scholar
  6. AfricaRice (2011b). Multinational NERICA rice dissemination. Project report. Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), Cotonou, Benin.Google Scholar
  7. Balasubramenian, V., Sie, M., Hijmans, R. J., & Otsuka, K. (2007). Increasing rice production in Sub-Saharan Africa: opportunities and challenges. Advances in Agronomy, 94.Google Scholar
  8. Bellon, M. R. (2003). Conceptualizing interventions to support on-farm conservation. World Development, 32(1), 159–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bergman-Lodin, J. (2005). The NERICA conundrum: From rice to riches. Lund: Lund University, Department of Economic and Social Geography.Google Scholar
  10. Buddenhagen, I. W. (1986). Strategies and approaches to wetland rice improvement. In A. S. R. Juo and J. A. Lowe (Eds.), The Wetlands and rice in Sub–Saharan Africa: Proceedings of an international conference on Wetland utilization for rice production in Sub–Saharan Africa, (pp. 97–106). November 4–8, 1985. Ibadan, Nigeria: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA).Google Scholar
  11. Calpe, C. (2002). International trade in rice: Recent developments and prospects. FAO: World Rice Conference, Tsukuba, 5–7 November.Google Scholar
  12. Carney, J. (1993). Women’s land rights in Gambian irrigated rice schemes: constraints and opportunities. Economic Geography, 69(4), 329–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carpenter, A. J. (1978). Rice history. In I. W. Buddenhagen & G. J. Persley (Eds.), Rice in Africa (pp. 3–10). London: Academic.Google Scholar
  14. Chandler, R. F. Jr. (1979). Rice in the tropics: A guide to the development of national programs. pp. 9–12, pp. 18–21.Google Scholar
  15. Chang, T. T. (1976). The origin, evolution, cultivation, dissemination and diversification of Asian and African rices. Euphytica, 25, 425–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cleaver, K. M., & Schreiber, G. A. (1994). Reversing the spiral: The population, agriculture and environment nexus in sub-Saharan Africa. Washington D.C.: World Bank.Google Scholar
  17. Cleaver, K. M. (1993). A strategy to develop agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa and a focus for the World Bank. World Bank technical paper No 203. Washington D.C.: World Bank.Google Scholar
  18. David, C. C., & Otsuka, K. (1994). Modern rice technology and income distribution in Asia. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  19. Dawe, D. (2002). The changing structure of the world rice market, 1950–2000. Food Policy, 27, 355–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Defoer, T., Wopereis, M. C. S., Jones, M. P., Lancon, F., & Erenstein, O. (2002). Challenges, innovation and change: Towards rice-based food security in sub-Saharan Africa. In “Proceedings of the 20th Session of the International Rice Commission”. Bangkok, Thailand, 23–26 July 2002. FAO.Google Scholar
  21. Diagne, A., Sogbossi, M. J., Diawara, S., & Camara, A. (2006). L’étendue du succès de la dissémination des variétés NERICA en Guinée : Estimation des superficies emblavées. Mimeo. Cotonou, Benin : Centre du riz pour l’Afrique (ADRAO).Google Scholar
  22. Diagne, A., Adekambi, S. A., Simtowe, F. P. & Biaou, G. (2009a). The impact of agricultural technology adoption on poverty: the case of Nerica rice varieties in Benin. A shorter version of the paper is being presented as contributed paper at the 27th Conference of the International Association of Agricultural Economists. August 16–22, 2009. Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  23. Diagne, D., Demont, M., & Diagne, A. (2009b). Adoption and impact of an award winning post-harvest technology: The ASI rice thresher in the Senegal River Valley. Contributed Paper prepared for presentation at the International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference, Beijing, China, August 16-22, 2009.Google Scholar
  24. Diagne, A., Midingoyi, S.-K. G., Wopereis, M., & Akintayo, I. (2011). Increasing rice productivity and strengthening food security through New Rice for Africa (NERICA). In C.-P. Punam & A. Manka (Eds.), Yes Africa can: Success stories from a dynamic continent (p. 492). Washington DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.Google Scholar
  25. Dontsop Nguezet, P. M., Diagne, A., Okoruwa, V. O., & Ojehomon, V. T. (2011). Impact of improved rice technology (NERICA varieties) on income and poverty among rice farming households in Nigeria: a Local Average Treatment Effect (LATE) approach. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 50(3), 267–292. DLG-Verlag Frankfurt/M.Google Scholar
  26. Evenson, R. E., & Golin, D. (2003). Crop variety improvement and its effect on productivity: The impact of international agricultural research. Wallingford: CABI Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fall, A. A. (2005). Impact Economique de la recherche rizicole au Senegal et en Mauritanie. Agronomie Africaine, (Decembre). pp. 53–62.Google Scholar
  28. FAO (2003). Sustainable rice production for food security. Proceedings of the 20th Session of the International Rice Commission. Bangkok, Thailand, 23–26 July 2002.Google Scholar
  29. FAO (2009). How to Feed the World in 2050, (p. 35). Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/wsfs/docs/expert_paper/How_to_Feed_the_World_in_2050.pdf. Access on 19th December 2011.
  30. FAO-STAT (2011). http://faostat.fao.org/site/452/default.aspx. Access on December 2011.
  31. Faure, J., & Mazaud, F. (1996). Rice quality criteria and the European market. In: Proceedings of the 18th Session of the International Rice Commission, 5–9 September 1996, Rome, Italy, pp. 121–131.Google Scholar
  32. Goufo, P. (2008). Evaluating the constraints and opportunities for sustainable rice production in Cameroon. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 4(6), 734–744.Google Scholar
  33. Grain (2009). Nerica: Another trap for small farmers in Africa. Grain Briefing, January 2009. http://www.grain.org/article/entries/111-nerica-another-trap-for-small-farmers-in-africa. Accessed on 20th January 2012.
  34. Grist, D. H. (1986). Rice (6th ed.). London: Longman.Google Scholar
  35. Gyasi, E. A. (2004). Conservation of landraces by local communities: methodological lessons from the PLEC experience in Ghana. Paper presented at the Regional Conference on Plant Genetic Resources and Food Security in West and Central Africa, Ibadan, Nigeria. 26–30 April 2004.Google Scholar
  36. Harlan, J. R., & Stemler, A. (1976). The races of sorghum in Africa. In J. R. Harlan, J. M. De Wet, & A. B. Stemler (Eds.), Origin of African plant domestication. The Hague: Mouton Publishers.Google Scholar
  37. Hayami, Y., & Kikuchi, M. (1982). Asian village economy at the crossroads. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Hayami, Y., & Ruttan, V. W. (1985). Agricultural development: An international perspective. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  39. IRRI, AfricaRice & CIAT (2010). Global Rice Science Partnership (GRiSP). November 2010.Google Scholar
  40. Jackson, M. T., & Lettington, R. J. L. (2002). Conservation and use of rice germplasm: An evolving paradigm under the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.Google Scholar
  41. Johnson, D. E. (1997). Weeds of rice in West Africa. Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire, WARDA.Google Scholar
  42. Jones, M. P. (1995). The rice plant and its environment, (pp. 27–30). WARDA Training Guide 2. WARDA, Bouaké.Google Scholar
  43. Juliano, B. O. (1993). Rice in human nutrition (p. 162). FAO: Rome.Google Scholar
  44. Kennedy, G., Burlingame, B., & Nguyen, V. N. (2002). Nutritional contribution of rice and impact of biotechnology and biodiversity in rice-consuming countries. In “Proceedings of the 20th Session of the International Rice Commission”. Bangkok, Thailand, 23–26 July 2002. FAO.Google Scholar
  45. Kijima, Y., Dick, S., & Otsuka, K. (2006). How revolutionary is the ‘NERICA revolution’? Evidence from Uganda. The Developing Economies, 44(2), 252–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kijima, Y., Keijiro, O., & Sserunkuuma, D. (2007). Assessing the impact of a NERICA on income and poverty in central and Western Uganda. FASID Discussion Paper Series on International Development Strategies. No. 2007-10-001.Google Scholar
  47. Kijima, Y., Otsuka, K., & Dick, S. (2008). Assessing the impact of NERICA on income and poverty in central and Western Uganda. Agricultural Economics, 38(3), 327–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kijima, Y., Otsuka, K., & Dick, S. (2011). An inquiry into constraints on a green revolution in Sub-Saharan Africa: the case of NERICA rice in Uganda. World Development, 39(1), 77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kinkingninhoun-Medagbé, F. M., Diagne, A., Simtowe, F., Agboh-Noameshie, A. R., & Adégbola, P. Y. (2008). Gender discrimination and its impact on income, productivity and technical efficiency: Evidence from Benin, Agriculture and human values. Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  50. Linares, O. F. (2002). African Rice Oryza Glaberrima: History and Future Potential. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa-Ancon, Panama.Google Scholar
  51. Lu, B. R. (1999). Taxonomy of the genus Oryza (poaceae): historical perspective and current status. IRRN, 24, 4–8.Google Scholar
  52. Mama, V. J., Orekan, V., Agli, C., et al. (2000). Développement participatif des technologies rizicoles dans les bas-fonds de Gankpétin et de Gomé (Centre Bénin) 2000. Bulletin de la Recherche Agronomique du Bénin (29), 1–15.Google Scholar
  53. McLean, J. L., Dawe, D. C., Hardy, B., & Hettel, G. P. (Eds.) (2002). Rice almanac, 3rd ed., (p. 253). IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines; CIAT, Cali, Colombia; FAO, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  54. Mohamed, K. I., Papes, M., Williams, R., Benz, B. W., & Peterson, T. A. (2006). Global invasive potential of 10 parasitic witchweeds and related orobanchaceae. Ambio, 35, 281–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Moseley, W. G., Carney, J., & Becker, L. (2010). Neoliberal policy, rural livelihoods, and urban food security in West Africa: a comparative study of The Gambia, Côte d’Ivoire, and Mali. Proceedings of the National Academy Science of USA, 107(13), 5774–5779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nakano, Y., Bamba, I., Diagne, A., Otsuka, K., & Kajisa, K. (2011). The possibility of a rice Green Revolution in large-scale irrigation schemes. In: Sub-Saharan Africa. Working paper forthcoming in An African Green Revolution: Finding Ways to Boost Produtivity on Small Farms. Springer (2012).Google Scholar
  57. Thanh, N. C., & Baldeo, S. (2006). Constraints faced by the farmers in rice production and export. Omonrice, 14, 97–110.Google Scholar
  58. Nyalemegbe, K. K., Oteng, J. W., Darkwa, E. O., & Oti–Boeteng, C. (2003). Comparative performance of diVerent rice–based cropping patterns in the Vertisols of the Accra Plains of Ghana. In S. Sanyang, A. Ajayi, & A. A. Sy (Eds.), Proceedings of the second biennial regional rice research review (pp. 18–26). Cotonou: WARDA.Google Scholar
  59. OECD (2009). Rice crisis, market trends, and food security in West Africa. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/38/38/47853480.pdf. Accessed on 21 December 2011.
  60. Oldeman, L. R., & Hakkeling, R. T. A. (1990). World map of the status of human-induced soil degradation: An explanatory note. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).Google Scholar
  61. Orr, S., Sumberg, J., Erenstein, O., & Oswald, A. (2008). Funding international agricultural research and the need to be noticed: a case study of NERICA rice. Outlook on Agriculture, 37, 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Otsuka, K., & Place, F. (2001). Land tenure and natural resource management: A comparative study of agrarian communities in Asia and Africa. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Otsuka, Y. (2005). Green revolution in Asia and its sustainability. Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID).http://www.fasid.or.jp/daigakuin/sien/kaisetsu/051125report.pdf
  64. Ponamperuma, F. N., & Deturck, P. (1993). A review of fertilization in rice production. IRC Newsletter, FAO, Rome, Italy, 42, 1–12.Google Scholar
  65. Portères, R. (1950). Vieilles agricultures de l’Afrique intertropicale. L’Agronomie Tropicale, 5, 489–507.Google Scholar
  66. Portères, R. (1976). African cereals: eleusine, fonio, black fonio, teff, Brachiaria, paspalum, Pennisetum and and African rice. In J. R. Harlan, J. M. De Wet, & A. B. Stemler (Eds.), Origin of African plant domestication. African rice (pp. 409–452). The Hague: Mouton Publishers.Google Scholar
  67. Rodenburg, J., & Johnson, D. E. (2009). Weed management in rice-based cropping systems in Africa. Advances in Agronomy, 103, 149–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rodenburg, J., & Demont, M. (2009). Potential of herbicide-resistant rice technologies for Sub-Saharan Africa. AgBioforum, 12(3&4), 313–325.Google Scholar
  69. Sahrawat, K. L. (2004). Iron toxicity in wetland rice and the role of other nutrients. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 27, 1471–1504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sarla, N., & Swamy, B. P. M. (2005). Oryza glaberrima: a source for the improvement of Oryza sativa. Current Science, 89(6), 955–963.Google Scholar
  71. Saito, K., Mekonnen, H., & Spurling, D. (1994). Raising the productivity of women farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. World Bank Africa Technical Department Series 230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Schultz, T. W. (1975). The value of ability to deal with disequilibria. Journal of Economic Literature, 13, 827–846.Google Scholar
  73. Seck, P. A., Tollens, E., Wopereis, M. C. S., Diagne, A., & Bamba, I. (2010). Rising trends and variability of rice prices. Threats and opportunities for Sub-Saharan Africa. Food Policy, 35(5), 403–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Singbo, A. (2007). Mesure d’efficacité des systèmes d’exploitation des bas-fonds dans la région centre du Bénin. Belguim: Universite Catholique de Louvain.Google Scholar
  75. Skamnioti, P., & Gurr, S. J. (2009). Against the grain: safeguarding rice from rice blast disease. Trends in Biotechnology, 27, 141–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Somado, E. A., Guei, R. G., & Keya, S. O. (2008). NERICA: the new rice for Africa—a Compenium. Cotonou: WARDA. www.saa-tokyo.org/english/lastestinfo/pdf/nerica080228.pdf . Access on 10th October 2011.
  77. Spencer, D., Dorward, A., Abalu, G., Dayo, P. & Ogungbile, D. (2006). Evaluation of adoption of Nerica and other improved upland rice varieties following varietal promotion activities in Nigeria. A study for the Gatsby and Rockefeller Foundations, Final Report.Google Scholar
  78. Swain, D. K., Herath, S., Pathirana, A. & Mittra, B. N. (2005). Rainfed lowland and flood-prone rice: A critical review on ecology and management Technology for improving the productivity in Asia.Google Scholar
  79. Thi Ut Thran (2002). The impact of green revolution on rice production in Vietnam. Paper presented at the workshop on “Green Revolution in Asia and its Transferability to Africa. Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development and held in Tokyo December 8–10, 2002. http://www.fasid.or.jp/chosa/forum/fasidforum/ten/fasid10/dl/1-6-p.pdf.
  80. Timmer, C. P., Block, S., & Dawe, D. (2010). Long-run dynamics of rice consumption, 1960–2050. In S. Pandey, D. Byerlee, D. Dawe, A. Dobermann, S. Mohanty, S. Rozelle, & B. Hardy (Eds.), Rice in the global economy: Strategic research and policy issues for food security, Chapter 1.6 (pp. 139–174). Los Banos: International Rice Research Institute.Google Scholar
  81. Tran, D. V. (1996). World rice production main issues and technical possibilities. Rome: International Rice Commission, FAO.Google Scholar
  82. Tran, D. (2004). Rice and narrowing the yield gap (p. 2). Rome: International Year of Rice, Fact Sheets, FAO.Google Scholar
  83. UNEP-GEF (2010). Securing sustainability through the conservation and use of agricultural biodiversity, (p. 27). United Nations Environment Programme UNEP, Division for the Global Environment Facility (DGEF). Job No. BD/003.Google Scholar
  84. UNCTAD (2010). Information on rice. http://www.unctad.org/infocomm/anglais/rice/market.htm#prod. Accessed May, 2010.
  85. United Nation (2009). The 2008 food price crisis: Rethinking food security policies. G-24 Discussion Paper Series. New York and Geneva. No. 56, June 2009.Google Scholar
  86. Van Asten, P. J. A., Barbie’ro, L., Wopereis, M. C. S., Maeght, J. L., & Van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M. (2003). Actual and potential salt-related soil degradation in an irrigated rice scheme in the Sahelian zone of Mauritania. Agricultural Water Management, 60, 13–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Van Mele, P., Wanvoeke, J., Akakpo, C., Dacko, R. M., Ceesay, M., Beavogui, L., Soumah, M., & Anyang, R. (2010). Videos bridging Asia and Africa: overcoming cultural and institutional barriers in technology-mediated rural learning. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 16(1), 75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Van Mele, P. (2006). Zooming-in, zooming-out: a novel method to scale up local innovations and sustainable technologies. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 4(2), 131–142.Google Scholar
  89. Wailes, E. J. (2004). Rice: Global trade, protectionist policies and the impact of trade on liberalization.Google Scholar
  90. Wopereis, M. C. S., Diagne, A., Rodenburg, J., Sié, M., & Somado, E. A. (2008). Why NERICA is a successful innovation for African farmers: a response to Orr et al. from the Africa Rice Center. Outlook on Agriculture, 37(3), 169–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zossou, E., Van Mele, P., Vodouhe, S. D., & Wanvoeke, J. (2009). The power of video to trigger innovation: rice processing. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 7(2), 119–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. & International Society for Plant Pathology 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Papa Abdoulaye Seck
    • 1
  • Aliou Diagne
    • 1
  • Samarendu Mohanty
    • 2
  • Marco C. S. Wopereis
    • 1
  1. 1.Africa Rice CenterCotonouBenin
  2. 2.International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)Los BañosPhilippines

Personalised recommendations