Linking small-scale fisheries and aquaculture to household nutritional security: an overview

Abstract

Small-scale fisheries and aquaculture have been recognized as important opportunities to enhance household food security in developing countries. While interventions aiming at promoting these activities reveal many positive effects, their direct and indirect impacts on nutritional status have not yet been fully documented. The objective of this paper is to identify more specifically the potential pathways that exist between fish-related livelihoods (small-scale fisheries, fish farming) and household nutritional security. The existing literature reveals scattered but increasing evidence of the contribution of fish to nutritional security through three distinct pathways. The first one is the direct nutritional contribution from fish consumption: because fish are rich in essential nutrients such as vitamin A, calcium, iron and zinc, households engaged in small-scale fisheries or aquaculture are, in theory, able to improve their own nutritional intakes by consuming some of the fish they capture or farm. The second relates to income: increased purchasing power through the sale of fish is recognized as critical for households to be able to access other foods and to improve their overall dietary intake. Finally, because the degree of control exercised by women over family income impacts directly on household food security and nutritional outcomes, enhancing the economic status of women through their involvement in aquaculture and/or fisheries-related activities (fish processing and trading) is also identified as another important pathway to improve household nutritional security. For these three pathways, however, evidence is often only anecdotal and therefore, the paper concludes by highlighting areas where further research and data are needed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Notes

  1. 1.

    RAE=Retinol Activity Equivalents.

  2. 2.

    These authors do not indicate, however, whether those differences were statistically significant.

  3. 3.

    1USD=69.5 Taka in August, 2010

  4. 4.

    The income effect on consumption of micronutrients found primarily in meats, such as iron, is generally high while the income effects for micronutrients that come primarily from vegetables such as Vitamin A is usually lower (Bouis 1991).

  5. 5.

    See however Aromolaran (2004).

  6. 6.

    Barman (2001) noticed that women in some parts of Bangladesh are traditionally involved in feeding and fertilizing tasks but the ownership of the production and the income derived from selling fish still remained under men’s control. When women were trained, however, they were more likely to become involved in the whole production process of fish and ownership of fisheries may change.

  7. 7.

    This potential competition between cash-crop and food-crop function happens only when part of the fish is kept for subsistence. In cases where the entire fish catch or production is sold (as is the case in some high-value species fisheries or aquaculture), the issue is comparable to the one discussed in other conventional cash crops (coffee or tobacco) where cash income is used to purchase staple food.

References

  1. Ahmed M, Lorica MH (2002) Improving developing country food security through aquaculture development—lessons from Asia. Food Policy 27:125–141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Aiga H, Matsuoka S, Kuroiwa C, Yamamoto S (2009) Malnutrition among children in rural Malawian fish-farming households. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103:827–833

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Alderman H (1986) The effect of food price and income changes in the acquisition of food by low-income households. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  4. Alim MA, Wahab MA, Milstein A (2004) Effects of adding different proportions of the small fish punti (Puntius sophore) and mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) to a polyculture of large carp. Aquac Res 35:124–133

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Allison E (2004) The fisheries sector, livelihoods and poverty reduction in Eastern and Southern Africa. In: Ellis F, Freeman A (eds) Rural livelihoods and poverty reduction policies. Routledge, London, pp 256–273

    Google Scholar 

  6. Allison E, Mvula P (2002) Fisheries management policies and livelihoods: Malawi. LADDER Working Paper 22, Norwich, UK: Overseas Development Group, University of East Anglia

  7. Anon (2004) Contribution of Gama to the workshop on Gender in fisheries. Groupment d’Appui au Mouvement Associatif. In: Bennett E, Rey Valette H, Yacouba Maiga K, Medard M (eds). Room to manoeuvre: gender and coping strategies in the fisheries sector. European Commission Contract No. ICA4-2002-50034 IDDRA, Portsmouth, UK

  8. Aromolaran AB (2004) Household income, women’s income share and food calorie intake in South Western Nigeria. Food Policy 29(5):507–530

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Asche F, Bremnes H, Wessells CR (1999) Product aggregation, market integration, and relationships between prices: an application to world salmon markets. Am J Agric Econ 81:568–581

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Barman BK (2001) Women in small-scale Aquaculture in North-west Bangladesh. Gend Technol dev 5:267–287

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bayliss-Smith T (1991) Food security and agricultural sustainability in the New Guinea Highlands: vulnerable people, vulnerable places. IDS Bulletin Vol.22, No3, Food Security and the environment, Brighton: IDS, University of Sussex, 5–11

  12. Béné C, Cadren M, Lantz F (2000) Impact of cultured shrimp industry on wild shrimp fisheries: analysis of price determination mechanisms and market dynamics. Agric Econ 23:55–68

    Google Scholar 

  13. Béné C, Neiland A, Jolley T, Ladu B, Ovie S, Sule O, Baba O, Belal E, Mindjimba K, Tiotsop F, Dara L, Zakara A, Quensiere J (2003) Inland fisheries, poverty and rural livelihoods in the Lake Chad basin. J Asian Afr Stud 38(1):17–51

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Béné C, Macfadyen G, Allison EH (2007) Increasing the contribution of small-scale fisheries to poverty alleviation and food security, FAO fisheries technical paper 481. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome

    Google Scholar 

  15. Béné C, Steel E, Kambala LB, Gordon A (2009) Fish as the ‘bank in the water’: evidence from chronic-poor communities in Congo. Food Policy 34(1):108–118

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Bhujel RC, Shrestha MK, Pant J, Buranrom S (2008) Ethnic Women in Aquaculture in Nepal. Development 51:259–264

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Bose ML, Dey MM (2007) Food and nutritional security in Bangladesh: going beyond carbohydrate counts. Agric Econ Res Rev 20:203–225

    Google Scholar 

  18. Bouis H (1991) The determinants of household-level demand for micronutrients: an analysis for Philippines farm households. International Food Policy Research Institute, mimeo, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  19. Chamnan C, Thilsted S, Roitana B, Sopha L, Gerpacio RV, Roos N (2009) The role of fisheries resources in rural Cambodia: combating micronutrient deficiencies in women and children. Phnom Penh: Department of fisheries post-harvest technologies and quality control, fisheries administration, ministry of agriculture, forestry and fisheries

  20. Chittchang U, Jittinandana S, Sungpuang P, Chavasit V, Wasantwisut E (1999) Recommending vitamin A-rich foods in southern Thailand. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 20(2):238–242

    Google Scholar 

  21. Dey MM, Kambewa M, Prein D, Jamu FJ, Paraguas E, Pemsl E, Briones M (2006) Impact of development and dissemination of integrated aquaculture—agriculture (IAA) technologies in Malawi. NAGA WorldFish Centre Quarterly 29(1 & 2):28–35

    Google Scholar 

  22. Ellis F, Bahiigwa G (2003) Rural livelihoods and poverty reduction in Uganda. World Dev 31(6):997–1013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. FAO (2005) Responsible fish trade and food security. FAO Fisheries technical paper no. 456, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization, 102pp.

  24. FAO (2009) Low - income food - deficit countries 2009, FAO country profiles. http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/lifdc.asp. Accessed 3 November 2009

  25. Friedman K, Krone M, Pinca S, Magron F, Boblin P, Pakoa K, Awiva R, Chapman L (2008) Papua New Guinea country report: profiles and results from survey work at Andra, Tsoilaung, Sideia and Panapompom. Pacific Regional Oceanic and Coastal Fisheries Development Programme, New Caledonia

    Google Scholar 

  26. Garaway C (2005) Fish, fishing and the rural poor. A case study of the household importance of small-scale fisheries in the Lao PDR. Aquatic Resources, Culture and Development 1(2):131–144

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Gibson RS, Hotz C (2001) Dietary diversification/modification strategies to enhance micronutrient content and bioavailability of diets in developing countries. Br J Nutr 85(2):159–166

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Gibson RS, Hotz C, Temple L, Yeudall F, Mtitimuni B, Ferguson E (2000) Dietary strategies to combat deficiencies of iron, zinc, and vitamin A in developing countries: development, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Food Nutr Bull 21(2):219–231

    Google Scholar 

  29. Gnimadi C (2004) Gender and organisational development. Practical guide of the SFLP for the creation of the gender strategy to help community organisations in the fishing community of Agbodjedo in Benin. In: Bennett E, Rey Valette H, Yacouba Maiga K, Medard M (eds). Room for Manoeuvre: gender and coping strategies in the fisheries sector. European Commission Contract No. ICA4-2002-50034, IDDRA, Portsmouth, UK.

  30. Gomna A, Rana K (2007) Inter-household and intra-household patterns of fish and meat consumption in fishing communities in two states in Nigeria. Br J Nutr 97(1):145–152

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Greco L, Balungi J, Amono K, Iriso R, Corrado B (2006) Effect of a low-cost food on the recovery and death rate of malnourished children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 43:512–517

    Google Scholar 

  32. Hawkes C, Ruel M (2006) The links between agriculture and health: an intersectoral opportunity to improve the health and livelihoods of the poor. Bull World Health Organ, 84 (12)

  33. Hansen M, Thilsted SH, Sandstrom B, Kongsbak K, Larsen T, Jensen M, Sorensen S (1998) Calcium absorption from small soft-boned fish. J Trace Elem Med Biol 12:148–154

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Heck S, Béné C, Reyes-Gaskin R (2007) Investing in African fisheries: building links to the Millennium Development Goals. Fish Fish 8(3):211–226

    Google Scholar 

  35. Hopkins J, Levin C, Haddad L (1994) Women’s income and household expenditure patterns: gender or flow? Evidence from Niger. Am J Agric Econ 76(5):1219–1225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Hori M, Ishikawa S, Heng P, Thay S, Ly V, Nao T, Kurokura H (2006) Role of small-scale fishing in Kompong Thom Province, Cambodia. Fish Sci 72:846–854

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Iannotti L, Cunningham K, Ruel M (2009) Improving diet quality and micronutrient nutrition, Homestead food production in Bangladesh. IFPRI Discussion Paper 00928. Washington D.C.: The international Food Policy Research Institute. 44p

  38. International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (2004). Assessment of the risk of zinc deficiency in populations and options for its control. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 25(1), supplement

  39. Islam FU (2007) Self-recruiting species (SRS) in aquaculture: their role in rural livelihoods in two areas of Bangladesh. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Stirling

  40. Jahan, K. M., Ahmed, M., Belton, B. (2009). The impacts of aquaculture development on food security: lessons from Bangladesh. Aquac Res, 1–15

  41. Kadir A, Kundu RS, Milstein A, Wahab MA (2006) Effects of silver carp and small indigenous species on pond ecology and carp polycultures in Bangladesh. Aquaculture 261:1065–1076

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Kawarazuka N (2010) The contribution of fish intake, aquaculture, and small-scale fisheries to improving nutrition: a literature review. Working Paper No.2106. The WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia. 54 p

  43. Karim M (2006) The livelihood impacts of fishponds integrated within farming systems in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Stirling

  44. Kennedy E, Peters P (1992) Household food security and child nutrition: the interaction of income and gender of household head. World Dev 20(8):1077–1085

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Kent G (1997) Fisheries, food security, and the poor. Food Policy 22(5):393–404

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Koletzko B, Cetin I, Brenna JT (2007) Dietary fat intakes for pregnant and lactating women. Br J Nutr 98:873–877. doi:10.1017/S0007114507764747

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Kongsbak K, Thilsted SH, Wahed MA (2008) Effect of consumption of the nutrient-dense, freshwater small fish Amblypharyngodon mola on biochemical indicators of vitamin A status in Bangladeshi children: a randomised, controlled study of efficacy. Br J Nutr 99:581–597

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Kumar P, Dey MM (2006) Nutritional Intake and Dynamics of Undernourishment of Farm Households in Rural India. Indian Dev Rev 4(2):269–284

    Google Scholar 

  49. Larsen T, Thilsted SH, Kongsbak K, Hansen M (2000) Whole small fish as a rich calcium source. Br J Nutr 83:191–196

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Lartey A, Manu A, Brown KH, Peerson JM, Dewey KG (1999) A randomized, community-based trial of the effects of improved, centrally processed complementary foods on growth and micro-nutrient status of Ghanaian infants from 6 to 12 mo of age. Am J Clin Nutr 70:391–404

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Leroy JL, Frongillo EA (2007) Can Interventions to Promote Animal Production Ameliorate Undernutrition? J Nutr 137:2311–2316

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Levin CE, Ruel MT, Morries SS, Maxwell DG, Klemesu MA, Ahiadeke C (1999) Working women in an Urban setting: traders, vendors and food security in Accra. World Dev 27(11):1977–1991

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Meinzen-Dick R, Brown L, Feldstein H, Quisumbing A (1997) Gender, property rights, and natural resources. World Dev 25(8):1303–1315

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Merten S, Haller T (2008) Property rights, food security and child growth: dynamics of insecurity in the Kafue flats of zambia. Food Policy 33(5):434–443

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Meusch E, Yhoung-Aree J, Friend R, Funge-Smith S (2003) The role and nutritional value of aquatic resources in the livelihoods of rural people: a participatory assessment in Attapeu province, Lao PDR. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok

    Google Scholar 

  56. Micronutrient Initiative (2009) A united call to action on vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Global report 2009. http://www.unitedcalltoaction.org/documents/Investing_in_the_future.pdf. Accessed 5 April 2010

  57. Mujinga W, Lwamba J, Mutala S, Husken SMC (2009) An inventory of fish species at the urban markets in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Regional Programme Fisheries and HIV/AIDS in Africa: Investing in Sustainable solusions. The WorldFish Center. Project Report 1983. 30p

  58. Neiland AE, Jaffry S, Ladu BMB, Sarch MT, Madakan SP (2000) Inland fisheries of North East Nigeria including the Upper River Benue, Lake Chad and the Nguru-Gashua wetlands I. Characterization and analysis of planning suppositions. Fish Res 48:229–243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Nielsen H, Roos N, Thilsted SH (2003) The impact of semi-scavenging poultry production on the consumption of animal sources foods by women and girls in Bangladesh. J Nutr 133:4027S–4030S

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Overa R (1998) Partners and competitors: gendered entrepreneurship in Ghanaian Canoe Fisheries, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Bergen

  61. Pachόn H, Simondon KB, Fall ST, Menon P, Ruel MT, Hotz C, Creed-Kanashiro H, Arce B, Dominguez MRL, Frongillo EA, Brown DL (2007) Constraints on the delivery of animal-source foods to infants and young children: Case studies from five countries. Food Nutr Bull 28(2):215–229

    Google Scholar 

  62. Pinca S, Vunisea A, Lasi F, Friedman K, Kronen M, Awira R, Boblin P, Tardy E, Chapman L, Magron F (2008) Solomon islands country report: profiles and results from survey work at Nggela, Marau, Rarumana and Chubilopi. Pacific Regional Oceanic and Coastal Fisheries Development Programme, New Caledonia

    Google Scholar 

  63. Prein M, Ahmed M (2000) Integration of aquaculture into smallholder farming systems for improved food security and household nutrition. Food Nutr Bull 21(4):466–471

    Google Scholar 

  64. Quisumbing AR, Brown LR, Feldstein HS, Haddad L, Pena C (1995) Women: the key to food security. Food Policy Report. Washington, D. C :, the International Food Policy Research Institute, 26 p

  65. Ramachandran N (2006) Women and food security in South Asia: Current issues and emerging concerns. United Nations University–World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER), Helsinki. http://website1.wider.unu.edu/research/2004-2005/2004-2005-4/papers/ramachandran.pdf. Accessed 6 April 2010

  66. Rahman OS (2003) Food security, poverty and women: Lessons from Rural Asia. Theoretical and empirical study on three projects in India and Nepal, 1999-2003. International Fund for Agricultural Development. http://www.ifad.org/gender/thematic/rural/rural_1.htm. Accessed 19 March 2010

  67. Roos N, Islam M, Thilsted SH, Ashrafuddin M, Mursheduzzaman M, Mohsin DM, Shamsuddin ABM (1999) Culture of mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) in polyculture with carps—experience from a field trial in Bangladesh. NAGA WorldFish Cent Q 22(2):16–19

    Google Scholar 

  68. Roos N (2001) Fish consumption and aquaculture in rural Bangladesh: Nutritional contribution and production potential of culturing small indigenous fish species (SIS) in pond polyculture with commonly cultured carps. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Denmark

  69. Roos N, Leth T, Jackobsen J, Thilsted SH (2002) High vitamin A content in some small indigenous fish species in Bangladesh: perspectives for food-based strategies to reduce vitamin A deficiency. Int J Food Sci Nutr 53:425–437

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Roos N, Islam MM, Thilsted SH (2003) Small indigenous fish species in Bangladesh: contribution to vitamin A, calcium and iron intakes. J Nutr 133:4021S–4026S

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Roos N, Wahab MA, Hossain MAR, Thilsted SH (2007a) Linking human nutrition and fisheries: incorporating micronutrient-dense, small indigenous fish species in carp polyculture production in Bangladesh. Food Nutr Bull 28(2):281–293

    Google Scholar 

  72. Roos N, Wahab MA, Chamnan C, Thilsted SH (2007b) The role of fish in food-based strategies to combat vitamin A and mineral deficiencies in developing countries. J Nutr 137:1106–1109

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Roos N, Chamnan C, Loeung D, Jakobsen J, Thilsted SH (2007c) Freshwater fish as a dietary source of vitamin A in Cambodia. Food Chem 103(4):1104–1111

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Roos N, Thorseng H, Chamnan C, Larsen T, Gondolf U, Bukhave K, Thildted SH (2007d) Iron content in common Cambodian fish species: Perspectives for dietary iron intake in poor, rural households. Food Chem 104(3):1226–1235

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Rubinoff J (1999) Fishing for status. Womens Stud Int Forum 22(6):631–644

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Ruel M (2001) Can food-based strategies help reduce vitamin A and iron deficiencies?: a review of recent evidence. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  77. Samad MA, Galib SM, Flowra FA (2009) Fish drying in Chalan Beel Areas. Bangladesh journal of scientific and industrial research 44(4):461–466

    Google Scholar 

  78. Sauni S, Kronen M, Pinca S, Friedman K, Chapman L, Magron F (2008) Tuvalu country report: profiles and results from survey work at Nggela, Marau, Rarumana and Chubilopi. Pacific Regional Oceanic and Coastal Fisheries Development Programme, New Caledonia

    Google Scholar 

  79. Sen A (1981) Poverty and famines: an essay on entitlement and deprivation. Clarendon, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  80. Shaikh FM (2007) Determinants of household food security and consumption pattern in Rural Sindh: an application of non-separable agricultural household model. Paper prepared for the103rd EAAE Seminar ‘Adding Value to the Agro-Food Supply Chain in the Future Euromediterranean Space’. Barcelona, Spain, April 23rd–25th, 2007

  81. Schaafsma G (2000) The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score. J Nutr 130:1865S–1867S

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. Shelly AB, Costa MD (2002) Women in aquaculture: initiatives of caritas Bangladesh. In Global Symposium on Women in Fisheries, Penang: the WorldFish Centre.

  83. Smith LC, Ramakrishnan U, Ndiaye A, Haddad LJ, Martorell R (2003) The importance of women’s status for child nutrition in developing countries. Research Report No.131 Food Policy Report, Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, 178 p

  84. Tacon AG, Metian M (2009) Fishing for feed or fishing for food: increasing global competition for small pelagic forage fish. Ambio 38(6):294–302

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. Thilsted SH, Roos N, Hassan N (1997) The role of small indigenous fish species in food and nutrition security in Bangladesh. NAGA WorldFish Centre Quarterly, July-December (Supplement), 82-84

  86. Thompson P, Roos N, Sultana P, Thilsted SH (2002) Changing significance of inland fisheries for livelihoods and nutrition in Bangladesh. In: Kataki PK, Babu SC (eds) Food systems for improved human nutrition: linking agriculture, nutrition and productivity. Haworth Press, Binghamton, pp 249–317

    Google Scholar 

  87. Thompson PM, Khan AKMF, Sultana P (2006) Comparison of aquaculture extension impacts in Bangladesh. Aquac Econ Manage 10:15–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Tontisirin K, Nantel G, Bhattacharjee L (2002) Food-based strategies to meet the challenges of micronutrient malnutrition in the developing world. Proc Nutr Soc 61(2):243–250

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  89. Underwood BA (2000) Overcoming micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries: Is there a role for agriculture. Food Nutr Bull 21(4):356–360

    Google Scholar 

  90. UNICEF (1990) Strategy for improved nutrition of children and women in developing countries. The United Nations Children's Fund, New York

    Google Scholar 

  91. USDA (2005) Nutrient Data Laboratory. USDA-nutrient data home. (Last updated: 18 November 2005) http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?info_center=4&tax_level=2&tax_subject=279&topic_id=1387. Accessed 1 October 2009.

  92. von Braun J, Bouis H, Kumar S, Pandya-Lorch R (1992) Improving food security of the poor: concept, policy and programs. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, 49 p

    Google Scholar 

  93. von Grebmer K, Nestorova B, Quisumbing A, Fertziger R, Fritschel H, Pandya-Lorch R, Yohannes Y (2009) Global hunger index: the challenge of hunger: focus on financial crisis and gender Inequality. International Food Policy Research Institute, Bonn

    Google Scholar 

  94. Wang C, Harris W, Chung M et al (2006) n–3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not α-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 84:5–17

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  95. Weeratunge N, Snyder KA, Sze CP (2010) Gleaner, fisher, trader, processor: understanding gendered employment in fisheries and aquaculture, Fish and Fisheries. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-2979.2010.00368.x/abstract. Accessed 18 July 2010

  96. WHO (1985) Energy and protein requirements. World Health Organization, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

  97. WHO (2007) Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition. World Health Organization, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

  98. WHO/FAO (2004) Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition. Second edition. World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

  99. WHO-WFP-UNICEF (2006) Preventing and controlling micronutrient deficiencies in populations affected by an emergency. Geneva: Joint statement by the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme and the United Nations Children's Fund

  100. World Bank (2007) From agriculture to nutrition: pathways, synergies and outcomes. The World Bank, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  101. WorldFish Center (2006) Fishing for a future: women in community based Fisheries Management. The WorldFish Center, Penang

    Google Scholar 

  102. WorldFish Center/World Vision (2007) Adapting fish farming to HIV/AIDS affected families, Worldfish-publications, http://www.worldfishcenter.org/resource_centre/Fish%20farming%20for%20HIVAIDs%20affected%20families-small_4.pdf. Accessed 1 October 2009.

  103. WorldFish Center (2009) Aquaculture options for alternative livelihoods: the experience of the Advasi Fisheries Project in Bangladesh. The WorldFish Center, Penang

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the WorldFish Center. The two authors share equal authorship. Useful comments by E.H. Allison, M. Beveridge, S. H. Thilsted and two reviewers of this journal on an earlier version of this paper are gratefully acknowledged. A special thanks to Richard Strange, editor-in-Chief of Food Security.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nozomi Kawarazuka.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kawarazuka, N., Béné, C. Linking small-scale fisheries and aquaculture to household nutritional security: an overview. Food Sec. 2, 343–357 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-010-0079-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Developing countries
  • Fish
  • Food security
  • Micronutrient deficiency
  • Nutritional intake