Skip to main content

A qualitative case study of international doctorate students’ perceptions of higher education quality in China

Abstract

With rapid economic advancement and government commitment to the expansion of higher education, China has taken a leap forward from being a leading sender of international students to an attractive destination for international students. In many respects, the hurried expansion and internationalization of Chinese higher education itself are a subject worth examining, but it also raises questions regarding the provision of quality higher education. This qualitative study aims to understand the perceptions of international students regarding the quality of higher education in China through a case study of the University of China (pseudonym). Qualitative interviews with ten international doctoral students reveal the principal quality-related factors that influence international students to study in China. The findings also indicate that international students have a high level of satisfaction with the quality of education in China.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Abukhattala, I. (2013). What Arabs students say about their linguistic and educational experiences in Canadian universities. International Education Studies, 6(8), 31–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Adamson, B., Nixon, F., & Su, F. (2012). Comparative education and the reorientation of higher education. In Adamson, B, Nixon, J., & Su, F. (Eds.), The reorientation of higher education: Challenging the EastWest dichotomy (pp. 12–34). Comparative Education Research Centre and Springe.

  • Aguillo, I., Bar-llan, J., Levene, M., & Ortega, J. (2010). Comparing university rankings. Scientometrics, 85(1), 243–256. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-010-0190-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Amri, A. S., Mathew, P., Zubairi, Y. Z., & Jani, R. (2020). Optimal standards to measure the quality of higher education institutions in Oman: Stakeholders’ perception. SAGE Open, 10(3), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244020947440

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Altbach, P. G. (2014). Higher education crosses borders: Can the United States remain the top destination for foreign students? Change: the Magazine of Higher Learning, 36(2), 18–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Altbach, P. G., & Knight, J. (2007). The internationalization of higher education: Motivations and realities. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11, 290–305. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315307303542

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Amaral, A., Meek, L. V., & Larsen, I. M. (2003). The higher education managerial revolution? Kluwer.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Amit, K., & Riss, I. (2007). The role of social networks in the immigration decision-making process: The case of North American immigration to Israel. Immigrants & Minorities, 25(3), 290–313.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ammigan, R., & Jones, E. (2018). Improving the students experience: Learning from a comparative study of international student satisfaction. Journal of Studies in International Education, 22, 283–301. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315318773137

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, B.D. (2007). Students in a global village: The nexus of choice, expectation and experience in study abroad [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. The University of Texas.

  • Anderson, R., & Bhati, A. (2012). ‘Indian students’ choice of study destination: Reasons for choosing Singapore. International Journal of Innovative Interdisciplinary Research, 1(2), 66–76.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arambwela, A., & Hall, J. (2013). The interactional effects of the internal and external University environment and the influence of personal values on satisfaction among international postgraduate students. Studies in Higher Education, 38(7), 927–988. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2011.615916

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arambwela, R., Hall, J., & Zuhair, S. (2005). Postgraduate international students from Asia: Factors influencing satisfaction. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 15(2), 105–127.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Azmat, F., Osborne, A., Le Rossignol, K., Jogulu, U., Rentschler, R., Robottom, I., & Malathy, V. (2013). Understanding aspirations and expectations of international students in Australian higher education. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 33(1), 97–111. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2012.751897

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berry, L., & Parasaraman, A. (1991). Marketing services. Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bianchi, C. (2013). Satisfiers and dissatisfiers for international students of higher education: An exploratory study in Australia. Journal of Higher Education Policy, 35(4), 396–409. https://doi.org/10.1080/1360080X.2013.812057

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bodycott, P. (2009). Choosing a higher education study abroad destination—What mainland Chinese parents and students rates as important. Journal of Research in International Education, 8(3), 349–373.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brochado, A. (2009). Comparing alternative instruments to measure service quality in higher education. Quality Assurance in Education, 17(2), 174–190.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brookes, M., Becket, N. (2007). Quality management in higher education: A review of international issues and practice. International Journal of Quality and Standards, 1, 1–37

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks, R., & Waters, J. (2011). Student mobilities, migration and the internationalization of higher education. Palgrave Macmillan.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Bryla, P. (2014). Self-reported effect of and satisfaction with international mobility: A large-scale survey among polish former Erasmus students. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191, 2074–2082.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cai, Y. (2013). Chinese higher education: The changes in the past two decades and reform tendencies up to 2020. In L. D. C. Ferreira & J. A. G. Albuquerque (Eds.), China and Brazil: Challenges and Opportunities (pp. 91–118). Campinas: Anablumme.

  • Cai, Y., Kivistö, J., & Zhang, L. (2011). Introduction. In Y. Cai & J. Kivistö (Eds.), Higher education reforms in Finland and China: Experiences and challenges in post- massification era (pp. 97–17). Tampere University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, J., & Li, M. (2008). Asian students’ voices: An empirical study of Asian students’ learning experiences at a New Zealand university. Journal of Studies in International Education, 12(4), 357–396.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cao, C., Zhu, C., & Meng, Q. (2016). A survey of the influencing factors for international academic mobility of Chinese university students. Higher Education Quarterly, 70, 200–220.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chan, D., & Ng, P. T. (2008). Similar agenda, diverse strategies: The quest for a regional hub of higher education in Hong Kong and Singapore. Higher Education Policy, 21(4), 485–503. https://doi.org/10.1057/hep.2008.19

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chang, D. F., & Chou, W.C. (2012). Fuzzy detecting the influence factors to attract international students to campus. 2012 International Conference on Technology and Management. Lecturer Notes in Information Technology, 21, 42–48.

  • Chen, C. H., & Zimitat, C. (2006). Understanding Taiwanese students’ decision-making factors regarding Australian international higher education. International Journal of Educational Management, 20(2), 91–100.

    Google Scholar 

  • Constantine, G., Anderson, G. M., Caldwell, L. D., Berkel, L. A., & Utsey, S. O. (2005). Examining the cultural adjustment experiences of African international college students: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(1), 57–66.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approach. Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Czerwionka, L., Artamonova, T., & Barbosa, M. (2015). Intercultural knowledge development: Evidence from student interviews during short-term study abroad. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 49, 80–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • De Melo-Costa, D., & Zha, Q. (2014). The massification process in Chinese higher education. A Gestão Do Conhecimento e osNovos Modelos De Universidade, 3, 4–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deem, R. (2001). Globalisation, new managerialism, academic capitalism and entrepreneurialism in Universities: Is the local dimension still important? Comparative Education, 37(1), 7–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dervin, F., Härköne, A., Yuan, M., Chen, N., & Zhang, W. (2020). “I want to feel that I live in China”: Imaginaries and hospitality in international students’ (mis-) encounters at a top Chinese university. Frontiers of Education in China, 15(4), 588–620. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11516-020-0028-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • DeWit, H., & Altbach, P. G. (2021). Internationalization in higher education. Global trends and recommendations for its future. Policy Reviews in Higher Education, 5(1), 28–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • di Salvo, V. S., Nikkel, E., & Monroe, C. (1989). Theory and practice: A field investigation and identification of group members’ perceptions of problems facing natural work groups. Small Group Behavior, 20(40), 551–567.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dill, D. (1998). Evaluating the evaluative state: Implications for research in higher education. European Journal of Education, 33(3), 361–377.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ding, L., & Hauzheng, L. (2012). Social networks and study abroad: The case of Chinese visiting students in the US. China Economic Review, 23, 580–589.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ding, X. (2010). What kind of education do international students in China need? On the basis of data from four universities in Shanghai. Journal of Higher Education, 6, 38–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ding, X. (2016). Exploring the experience of international students in China. Journal of Studies in International Education, 20(4), 319–338. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315316647164

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dube, L., & Ncube, B. (2013). Language policy and linguistic rights in post-colonial Zimbabwe: The case of IsiNdebele. Greener Journal of Social Sciences, 3(5), 249–255.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elliott, K. M., & Healy, M. A. (2001). Key factors influencing students’ satisfaction related to recruitment and retention. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 10(4), 1–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fengliang, L. (2016). Economies of scale and scope in internationalisation: Evidence from Chinese Universities. China: an International Journal, 14(2), 189–200.

    Google Scholar 

  • Firmin, M. W., Holmes, H. J., Firmin, R. L., & Merical, K. L. (2013). Personal and cultural adjustments involved with an Oxford study abroad experience. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 89, 555–558.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Flanagan, J. C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 51(4), 327–358.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gbollie, C., & Gong, S. (2020). Emerging destination mobility. Exploring African and Asian international students’ push-pull factors and motivations to study in China. International Journal of Educational Management, 34(1), 18–34.

  • Gök, E., & Gümüş, S. (2018). International student recruitment efforts of Turkish Universities: Rationales and strategies. Annual Review of Comparative and International Education. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1479-367920180000034019

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gornitzka, A., & Maassen, P. (2000). Hybrid steering approaches with respect to European higher education. Higher Education Policy, 13, 267–285.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gremler, D. D. (2004). The critical incident technique in service research. Journal of Service Research, 7(1), 66–89. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670504266138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grigg, L. (1996). The internationalization of Australian higher education: An evaluation of the contribution of the overseas postgraduate research scholarships scheme. Australian Government Publishing Service.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gu, M. (2006). Some questions concerning higher education assessment. Higher Education Development and Evaluation, 22(3), 1–3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field Methods, 18(1), 59–82. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X05279903

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gunawardema, H., & Wilson, R. (2012). International students at university: Understanding the student experience. Peter Lang.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Guolla, M. (1999). Assessing the teaching quality to student satisfaction relationship: Applied customer satisfaction research in the classroom. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 7(3), 87–97.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hemsley-Brown, J. (2012). ‘The best education in the world’: Reality, repetition, cliché? International students’ reasons for choosing an English university. Studies in Higher Education, 37(8), 1005–1022.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hill, F. (1995). Managing service quality in higher education: The role of the student as primary consumer. Quality Assurance in Education, 3(3), 10–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang, F. (2005). Quality enhancement and quantitative growth: Changes and trends of China’s higher education. Higher Education Policy, 18, 117–130.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang, F. (2011). A comparative study of massification of higher education in China and Japan. Higher Education Forum, 2, 115–129.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huiyao, W. (2019). China and globalization: 40 years of reform and opening-up and globalization. Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, 17(3), 215–220.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • International Consultants for Education and Fairs [ICEF], (2015). The State of International Student Mobility in 2015. Retrieved from http://monitor.icef.com/2015/11/the-state-of-international-student-mobilityin-2015/website

  • Jafari, A. M., Chehrzed, M., & Ghanbari, A. (2014). Quality of educational services from viewpoint’s for nursing and midwifery students of Guilan University based on Servqual model. Research in Medical Education, 6, 50–58.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jiang, Q., Yuen, M., & Horta, H. (2020). Factors influencing life satisfaction of international students in Mainland China. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 42, 393–413. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-020-09409-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jiani, M. A. (2017). Why and how international students choose Mainland China as a higher education study abroad destination. Higher Education, 74, 563–557. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-016-0066-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jongbloed, B., Enders, J., & Salerno, C. (2008). Higher education and its communities: Interconnections, interdependencies and a research agenda. Higher Education, 56(3), 303–324. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-008-9128-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Justin, D.D., Jin, S., & Hubert, V. (2019). Effect of international students’ perceived service quality on the student’s motivation, satisfaction, loyalty and institutional image in higher education in China. International Journal of Science and Business, IJSAB International, 3(2), 110–125. https://ideas.repec.org/a/aif/journl/v3y2019i2p110-125.html

  • Kagee, A. (2004). Do South African former detainees experience post-traumatic distress? Circumventing the demand characteristics of psychological assessment. Transcultural Psychiatry, 41(3), 326–336.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kéri, A. (2019). International student expectations, perceived HEI quality, satisfaction and loyalty- A proposed conceptual model. In B. Udvari & É. Voszka (Eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd Central European PhD Workshop on Economic Policy and Crisis Management. University of Szeged, Doctoral School in Economics, Szeged, pp. 174–194.

  • Knight, J. (2012). Students mobility and internationalization trend and tribulations. Research in Comparative and International Education, 7(1), 20–33. https://doi.org/10.2304/rcie.2012.7.1.20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Komotar, M. H. (2020). Discourses on quality and quality assurance in higher education from the perspective of global university rankings. Quality Assurance in Education, 28, 78–88. https://doi.org/10.1108/QAE-05-2019-0055

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lagrosen, S., Seyyed-Hashemi, R., & Leitner, M. (2004). Examination of the dimensions of quality in higher education. Quality Assurance in Education, 12(2), 61–69.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Landrum, H., Prybutok, V. R., & Zhana, Z. (2007). A Comparison of Magal’s service quality instrument with SERVPERF. Information of Management, 44, 104–113.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • LeBlanc, G., & Nguyen, N. (1995). Cues used by customers evaluating corporate image in service firms: An empirical study in financial institutions. International Journal Service Industry Management, 7(2), 45–56.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, J. J., & Rice, C. (2007). Welcome to America? International student perceptions of discrimination. Higher Education, 53, 381–409. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-005-4508-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lei, J., Xiao, L., & Li, B. (2021). African students’ motivations for studying in China’s higher education. Asia Pacific Education Review., 22, 319–332. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-021-09680-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li, L. (2003). Jiaoyu Fangtanlu (Interviews with Li Langqing on Education). People’s Education Press, 119.

  • Li, M., & Stodolska, M. (2006). Transnationalism, leisure, and Chinese graduates students in the United States. Leisure Sciences, 28(1), 39–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400500332686

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li, Y. (2010). Quality assurance in Chinese higher education. Research in Comparative and International Education, 5(1), 58–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Linder, K.J. (2018). Motivations, expectations and experience of international students from the People’s Republic of China studying in Australia secondary schools [Doctoral thesis, The University of Melbourne]. https://minerva-access.unimelb.edu.au/handle/11343/216837

  • Liu, S. (2013). Quality assessment of undergraduate education in China. Impact on different universities. Higher Education, 66, 391–407.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu, W., & Lin, X. (2016). Meeting the needs of Chinese international students is there anything we can learn from their home system? Journal of Studies in International Education, 20(4), 357–370.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lu Wang, C., Chung, K. C., Holdsworth, D. K., Li, Y., & Fam, K. S. (2009). Chinese “Little Emperor” cultural values and preferred communication sources for university choice. Young Consumer, 10(2), 120–132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lynch, K. (2015). Control by numbers: New managerialism and ranking in higher education. Critical Studies in Education, 56(2), 190–207. https://doi.org/10.1080/17508487.2014.949811

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Madiha, S., Zhu, Z., Sang, G., & Li, J. (2014). Making people employable: Reforming higher education in China. Academic Research International, 5(2).

  • Marcella, R, Lockerbie, H., & Baxter, G. (2013). Critical incident technique as a tool for gathering data as part of a qualitative study of information seeking behavior. In Ramos, I., Mesquita, A. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies. 4–5 July 2013. Sonning Common: Academic Conferences and Publishing Limited, 247–253.

  • Maringe, F., & Carter, S. (2007). International students’ motivations for studying in UK HE: Insights into the choice and decision making of African students. International Journal of Educational Management, 21, 459–475.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maxwell, J. A. (2005). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach. Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mazzarol, T., & Soutar, G. N. (2002). Push-pull factors influencing international students’ destination choice. International Journal of Educational Management, 16(2), 82–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • McCune, V., & Entwistle, N. (2011). Cultivating the disposition to understand in 21st century university education. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(3), 303–310.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McMahon, M. E. (1992). Higher education in a world market: A historical look at the global context of international study. Higher Education, 24, 465–482.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research. Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller, K. E., Worthington, G. J., Muzurovic, J., Tipping, S., & Goldman, A. (2002). Bosnian refugees and the stressors of exile: A Narrative Study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 72, 341–354.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ministry of Education (2019). Statistical Report on International Students in China for 2018. Retrieved from https://en.moe.ge.g.ov.cn/documents/reports/201904/t20190418_378692.html

  • Mok, K. H., Xiong, W., Ke, G., & Cheung, J. O. W. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on international higher education and student mobility: Student perspectives from mainland China and Hong Kong. International Journal of Educational Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2020.10171

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olssen, M., & Peters, M. A. (2005). Neoliberalism, higher education and the knowledge economy: From the free market to knowledge capitalism. Journal of Education Policy, 20(3), 313–345.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Onditi, E., & Wechuli, T. (2017). Service quality and student satisfaction in higher education institutions: A review of literature. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 7(7), 328–335.

    Google Scholar 

  • OED Online. (2018). Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. www.oed.com/view/Entry/122708.

  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] (2013). How is international student mobility shaping up? Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/edu/skills-beyond-school/EDIF%202013–N%C2%B014%20%28eng%29-Final.pdf

  • Page, A.G., & Chahboun, S. (2019). Emerging empowerment of international students: How international student literature has shifted to include the students’ voices. Higher Education, 78(871–885. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-019-00375-7

  • Petruzzellis, L., & Romanazzi, S. (2010). Educational value: How students choose university: Evidence from an Italian university. International Journal of Educational Management, 24(2), 139–158.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. (2003). The external control of organizations: A resource dependence perspective. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pimpa, N. (2005). A family affair: The effect of family on Thai students’ choices of international education. Higher Education, 49, 431–448.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ping, L., Jing, X., Othman, B., Binti, Z., Kadir, A., Yuefei, F., & Ping, X. (2019). An intercultural management perspective of foreign student’s adaptation in Chinese Universities: A case study of China Three Gorges University. Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, 9(2), 3371–3977. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.258

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pitkethtly, A., & Prosser, M. (2001). The first year experience project: A model for university-wide change. Higher Education Research & Development, 20(2), 185–198.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Qadeer, T., Javed, M. K., Manzoor., Wu, M., & Zaman, S.I. (2021). The experience of international students and institutional recommendations: A comparison between the students from the developing and developed regions. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 667230. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.667230

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rezaei, S., Karami, M. B., Hajizadeh, M., Soroush, A., Mohammadi, Z., Babakhany, M., & Jamshidi, K. (2017). Evaluating service quality in the higher education sector in Iran: An examination of students’ perspective. International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, 10(2), 146–155. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJHRH-12-2016-0024

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rezwanul, K. H., Ali, H., Al Mamun, M., & Suborna, B. (2009). Higher education in the private university of Bangladesh: A study on students enrollment behavior. BRAC University Journal, 6(2), 33–48.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rizvi, F. (2008). Epistemic virtues and cosmopolitan learning. The Australian Educational Researcher, 35, 17–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robson, C. (2002). Real world research (2nd ed.). Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roulston, K. (2001). Data analysis and “theorizing as ideology.” Qualitative Research, 1(3), 279–302.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ruby, A. (2010). The Uncertain Future for International Higher Education in the Asia- Pacific Region [Paper presentation]. Invitation Forum on New Approaches to Cooperation with Asia and Australia. Los Angeles, United States.

  • Sahasrabudhe, U. (2007). International student mobility: A perspective of graduate engineering students from India [Master’s thesis, California State University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text.

  • Sarrico, C. S., Rosa, M. J., Teixeira, P. N., & Cardoso, M. F. (2010). Assessing quality and evaluating performance in higher education: Worlds apart or complimentary views? Springer Science Business Media, 48(1), 35–54. https://doi.org/10.1007/s1124-010-9142-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sidhu, R. (2005). Building a global schoolhouse: International education in Singapore. Australia Journal of Education, 49(1), 46–65.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singh, J. K. N., Schapper, J., & Jack, G. (2014). The importance of place for international students’ choice of university: A case study at a Malaysian university. Journal of Studies in International Education, 8(5), 463–474.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, G., Smith, A., & Clarke, A. (2007). Evaluating service quality in universities: A service department perspective. Quality Assurance in Education, 15(3), 334–351.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Song, H., & Liu, L. (2014). Why do foreign Students Choose to Study in China: An empirical study based on the gravity model. Journal of Higher Education, 35(11), 31–33.

    Google Scholar 

  • Song, Y., & Song, H. (2006). Ten problems in undergraduate teaching quality evaluation. Higher Education Development and Evaluation, 22(6), 28–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Spron, B. (1999). Adaptive university structures: An analysis of adaptation to socioeconomic environments of US and European universities. PA, Taylor and Francis.

    Google Scholar 

  • Su, X. (2017). The intercultural adaptation of the Pakistan students at Chinese universities. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(12), 2236–2240. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2017.051213

  • Tian, L. (2003). Research on China’s foreign cultural exchange in higher education. The Ethnic Publishing House.

  • Tian, M., & Lowe, J. (2018). International students’ recruitment as an exercise in soft power: A case study of undergraduate medical students at a Chinese University. In F. Dervin, X. Du, & A. Härkönen (Eds.), International students in China: Education, student life and intercultural encounters (pp. 221–248). Springer International Publishing.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Tomovick, C., Jones, S., Al-Khativ, J., & Baradwaj, B. (1996). An assessment of the service quality provided to foreign students at United States Business Schools. Journal of Education for Business, 71, 130–138.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van der Wende, M. (2007). Internationalization of higher education in the OECD countries: Challenges and opportunities for the coming decade. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3), 274–289.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van Horne, S., Lin, S., Anson, & M. Jacobson, W. (2018). Engagement, satisfaction and belonging of international undergraduates at U.S. Research Universities. Journal of International Students, 8(1), 351–374. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v8i1.169

  • Vianden, J., & Yakoboski, T. (2017). Critical incidents of students satisfaction at German universities. International Journal of Educational Management., 31(7), 944–957. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEM-06-2015-0071

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang, Y., & Liu, B. (2009). Zhongguo jiaoyu gaige 30 nian: Gaodeng jiaoyu juan (the 30 years of Chinese education reforms: Higher education volume). Beijing shifan daxue chubanshe, Beijing Normal University Publisher

  • Wearring, A., Le, H., Wilson, R., & Arambwela, R. (2005). The international student’s experience: An exploratory study of students from Vietnam. The International Educational Journal Comparative Perspectives, 14(1), 71–89.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wekullo, C. S. (2019). International undergraduate student engagement: Implications for higher education administrators. Journal of International Students, 9, 320–337. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v9i1.257

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wen, W., Chen, L., Bai, Y., & Cao, H. (2013). A comparative study of international students’ experience and satisfaction in Beijing. 2, 63–70. https://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-BJSK201302011.htm

  • Wen, W. (2014). Bridging the gap between western and chinese evidence in the international education market. China World Economy, 22(6), 87–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wen, W., Hu, D., & Hao, J. (2018). International students’ experience in China: Does the planned reverse mobility work? International Journal of Educational Development, 61, 204–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2017.03.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • World Bank, (2007). Malaysia and the knowledge economy: Building a World-class Higher Education System. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTMALAYSIA/Resources/Malaysia-Knowledge-Economy2007.pdf.

  • Wu, M., Zhai, j., Wall, G., & Li, Q. (2019). Understanding international students’ motivations to pursue higher education in mainland China. Educational Review., 73(5), 580–596. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2019.1662772

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yang, P. (2018). Commentary: International students in China- What we know, what we don’t, and what next. In F. Dervin, X. Du, & A. Härkönen (Eds.), International students in China: Education, student life and intercultural encounters (pp. 249–255). Springer International Publishing.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Yasmin, F., Li, S., Zhang, Y., Poulova, P., & Akbar, A. (2021). Unveiling the international students’ perspective of service quality in Chinese higher education institutions. Sustainability, 13(11), 6008. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yu, B. (2010). Learning Chinese abroad: The role of language attitudes and motivation in the adaptation of international students in China. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 31(3), 301–321. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434631003735483

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yuan, W. (2011). Academic and cultural experiences of Chinese students at an American University. Intercultural Communications Studies, 1, 141–157.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zha, Q., & Hayhoe, R. (2008). The Beijing consensus and Chinese higher education: The Successful Stories and Looming Crisis (Apresentação). In: Ensino Superior e Desenvolvimento: a experiência dos BRICS (Seminário Internacional). Universidade de Campinas- Unicamp, 08 de Novembro de 2008.

  • Zhai, L. (2002). Studying international students: Adjustment issues and social Support. The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC).

  • Zhao, L., & Sheng, S. (2008). Fast and furious: Problems of China’s higher education expansion. East Asian Institute, Background Brief No. 359. Retrieved from http://www.eai.nus.edu.sg/BB395.pdf

Download references

Funding

The study is funded by the International Joint Research Project of Huiyan Internatinoal College, Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ntide Dady.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Dady, N., Sang, G. A qualitative case study of international doctorate students’ perceptions of higher education quality in China. Asia Pacific Educ. Rev. (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-022-09752-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-022-09752-x

Keywords

  • International students
  • Quality in education
  • Higher education
  • China