Teachers’ actual and preferred perceptions of twenty-first century learning competencies: a Chinese perspective

  • Guoyuan Sang
  • Jyh-Chong Liang
  • Ching Sing Chai
  • Yan Dong
  • Chin-Chung Tsai


To help students build twenty-first century learning skills, teachers must have reasonable perceptions about twenty-first century learning. To investigate Chinese teachers’ perceptions of twenty-first century learning competencies (TP21CLC), we conducted a survey (N = 340) using the questionnaire “Teachers’ Perceptions of 21st Century Learning Competencies.” This scale consists of six subscales including collaborative learning; self-directed learning; meaningful use of information and communication technology; critical thinking; creative thinking; and problem solving. Teachers rated each item on two forms of expression: perceptions of preferred learning and perceptions of actual learning. The results indicated that there was a clear gap between actual and preferred perceptions of twenty-first century learning. In addition, teachers’ perceptions of meaningful use of information and communication technology (ICT) had significant, positive correlations with other factors of TP21CLC.


Teacher perceptions Twenty-first century learning competency Learning strategies TPACK 



Funding was provided by International Cooperation Research Program of Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University and Faculty of Education and Social Work, The University of Sydney (Grant Nos. 2016GJXM06, 2016GJXM01)


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Copyright information

© Education Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guoyuan Sang
    • 1
  • Jyh-Chong Liang
    • 2
  • Ching Sing Chai
    • 3
  • Yan Dong
    • 4
  • Chin-Chung Tsai
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Teacher Education ResearchBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Program of Learning SciencesNational Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Curriculum and InstructionThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  4. 4.School of Educational Technology, Faculty of EducationBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina

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