The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between school organizational climate and teachers’ job satisfaction. A quantitative survey method was applied, and three broadly hypothesized relationships were tested with a sample of 245 teachers from six government secondary schools in district of Penampang, Sabah, Malaysia. The instrument used in this study was the modified version for combination of two questionnaires: Organizational Climate Index and the Teachers’ Job Satisfaction Questionnaire. The findings indicated that there is a significant positive relationship between school organizational climate and teachers’ job satisfaction. The teachers in this study were found to be fairly satisfied with their job, with the responsibility factor as the biggest contributor to job satisfaction. This study found that there is no significant difference in levels of job satisfaction between the teachers’ gender (male and female). Based on the years of service in their current school, there was a statically significant difference in the level of job satisfaction among the teachers. These findings revealed that the secondary schools in Sabah have a positive and open climate, with the professional teachers’ behaviour factor as the biggest contributor. The results of this study indicate the necessity to provide positive organizational climate and up keeping teachers’ job satisfaction by policy makers and principals with hope in enhancing the quality of schools in Malaysia.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abdullah, M. M., Uli, J., & Parasuraman, B. (2009). Job satisfaction among secondary school teachers. Journal of Humanities, 13(1), 11–18.
Ali, T., & Akhter, I. (2009). Job satisfaction of faculty members in private university–in context of Bangladesh. International Business Research, 2(4), 167–175.
Ali, E., & Hale, E. (2009). Predicting organizational trust level of school managers and teachers at elementary schools. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 2180–2190.
Anderson, J. E., Guido-DiBrito, F., & Morrell, J. S. (2000). Factors that influence satisfaction for student affairs administrators. New Directions for Institutional Research, 2000(105), 99–110. doi:10.1002/ir.10509.
Azzara, J. R. (2001). The heart of school leadership. Educational Leadership, 58(4), 62–64.
Bang, E., Kern, A. L., Luft, J. A., & Roehrig, G. H. (2007). First-year secondary school science teachers. School Science and Mathematics, 107(6), 258–261.
Belias, D. (2014). Organizational culture and job satisfaction, in banking sector—a review. International Journal of Human Resources Management, 3(2), 1–20.
Chang, M. (2009). An appraisal perspective of teacher burnout: examining the emotional work of teachers. Educational Psychology Review, 21(3), 193–218.
Clark, M. (2006). Teacher job satisfaction in secondary schools in southeastern Georgia. Doctoral dissertation. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. (UMI No. 3268441).
Cohen, J., McCabe, E. M., Michelli, N. M., & Pickeral, T. (2009). School climate: Research, policy, teacher education and practice. Teachers College Record, 111(1), 180–213.
Cooil, B., Aksoy, L., Keiningham, T., & Maryott, K. (2009). The relationship of employee perceptions of organizational climate to business-unit outcomes: An MPLS approach. Journal of Service Research, 11(3), 277–294.
Cookson, P. W. (2005). Your first-year: Why teach? Teaching Pre K-8, 34(3), 14–21.
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among the five traditions (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dawson, J. F., González-Romá, V., Davis, A., & West, M. A. (2008). Organizational climate and climate strength in UK hospitals. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17(1), 89–111.
Dee, T. S. (2006). How a teacher’s gender affects boys and girls. Education Next, 6(4), 68–75.
Dhanapal, S., Alwie, S. M., Subramaniam, T., & Vashu, D. (2013). Factors affecting job satisfaction among academicians: a comparative study between gender and generations. Proceeding of the 2nd international conference on management, economics and finance, 48–69. Retrieved from: http://www.internationalconference.com.my/proceeding/icmef2013_proceeding/2ndicmef_proceeding/005_068_2ndICMEF2013_Proceeding_p048.pdf.
Dickson, M., Smith, M. W., Grojean, M. C., & Ehrhart, M. W. (2001). An organizational climate regarding ethics: The outcome of leader values and the practices that reflect them. Leadership Quarterly, 12, 197–214.
Douangphachanh, M. (2009). Job satisfaction and work motivation among lecturers in a university in Laos. Unpublished master’s research report, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Duff, B. K. (2013). Differences in assessments of organizational school climate between teachers and administrators. Doctoral dissertation. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. (UMI No. 3559002).
Duggan, M. H. (2008). Non-instructional staff perceptions of the college climate. New Directions for Community Colleges, 2008(142), 47–56. doi:10.1002/cc.324.
George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. 11.0 update (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Geving, A. M. (2007). Identifying the types of student and teacher behaviours associated with teacher stress. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 23(5), 624–640.
Goddard, R., Sweetland, S. R., & Hoy, W. K. (2000). Academic emphasis of urban elementary schools and student achievement in reading and mathematics: A multi-level analysis. Educational Administration Quarterly, 36(5), 683–702.
Grayson, J. L., & Alvarez, H. K. (2008). School climate factors relating to teacher burnout: A mediator model. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(5), 1349–1363.
Grojean, M., Resick, C., Dickson, M., & Smith, D. B. (2004). Leaders, values, and organizational climate: Examining leadership strategies for establishing an organizational climate regarding ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 55(3), 223–241.
Guildford, J. P. (1973). Fundamental statistics in psychology and education (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hastings, R. P., & Bham, M. S. (2003). The relationship between student behaviour patterns and teacher burnout. School Psychology International, 24(1), 115–127.
Holt, C. R., & Smith, M. S. (2002). The relationship between school climate and student success. Arkansas Educational Research and Policy Studies Journal, 2(2), 52–64.
Hoy, W. K., & Miskel, C. G. (2008). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hoy, W. K., Smith, P. A., & Sweetland, S. R. (2002). The development of the organizational climate index for high schools: Its measure and relationship to faculty trust. The High School Journal, 86(2), 38–49.
Ivancevich, J. M., Konopaske, R., & Matteson, M. T. (2008). Organizational behavior and management (8th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
Kelley, R. C., Thornton, B., & Daugherty, R. (2005). Relationships between measures of leadership and school climate. Education, 126(1), 17–25.
Keuter, K., Byrne, E., Voell, J., & Larson, E. (2000). Nurses’ satisfaction and organizational climate in a dynamic work environment. Applied Nursing Research, 13(1), 46–49.
Kindt, C. A. (2008.) Relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction among middle school principals in central Florida. Doctoral dissertation. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. (UMI No. 3322928).
Knox, J. A. (2011). Teachers’ perceptions of job satisfaction and school climate in an era of accountability: A mixed methods study of two high schools on Tennessee’s high priority list. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from http://trace.tennessee.edu.
Le Cornu, R. (2009). Crossing Boundaries: Challenges of academics working in professional experiences. Refereed paper presented at ‘Teacher education crossing borders: Cultures, contexts, communities and curriculum’ the annual conference of the Australian Teacher Education Association (ATEA), Albury, 28 June–1 July. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED524613.pdf.
Lester, P. E. (1987). Development and factor analysis of the teacher job satisfaction questionnaire. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 47(1), 223–233.
Lunenburg, F. C., & Ornstein, A. C. (2004). Educational administration: Concepts and practices (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Malik, N. I. (2011). Level of job satisfaction among university and college men and women teachers. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(3), 750–758.
Marzano, R. J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. A. (2005). School leadership that works: From research to results. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).
Massengill, D., Mahlios, B., & Barry, A. (2005). Metaphors and sense of teaching: How these constructs influence novice teachers. Teaching Education, 16(3), 213–229.
Mbua, F. N. (2003). Educational administration: Theory and practice. Limbe, South West Province, Cameroon: Design House.
McMurray, A. J., Pace, R. W., & Scott, D. (2004). Research: A commonsense approach. Southbank, Victoria, Australia: Thomson Social Science Press.
Melnick, S. A., & Meister, D. G. (2008). A comparison of beginning and experienced teachers’ concerns. Educational Research Quarterly, 31(3), 39–56.
Mertler, C. A. (2002). Designing scoring rubrics for your classroom. In C. Boston (Ed.), Understanding scoring rubrics: A guide for teachers (pp. 72–81). College Park, Maryland: ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation.
Mine, S. (2009). Leadership behaviors of school principals in relation to teacher job satisfaction in north Cyprus. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 2855–2864.
Ministry of Education. (2014). Educational management information system: Number of teachers. Retrieved from: http://emisportal.moe.gov.my/.
Mohan, N., & Ashok, J. (2011). Organizational climate and attitude of teachers a co-relational study. European Journal of Social Sciences, 22(4), 599–610.
Najeemah Mohd Yusof. (2012). School climate and teachers’ commitment: a case study in Penang, Malaysia. International Journal of Economics Business and Management Studies, 1(2), 65–75.
Ngimbuzi, F. W. (2009). Job satisfaction among secondary school teachers in Tanzania: The case of Njombe district. Master’s thesis, University of Jyväskylä, Finland).Retrieved from: https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/bitstream/handle/123456789/25482/URN%3ANBN%3Afi%3Ajyu-201010152985.pdf?sequence=1.
Nieuwoudt, A. M. (2012). Confirmatory factor analysis of the organizational climate measure: A South African perspective. Master’s dissertation. University of Pretoria, South Africa. Retrieved from http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/submitted/etd-05152012-122735/unrestricted/dissertation.pdf.
Okoro, C. C., Ekanem, I. E., & Udoh, N. A. (2012). Teacher gender and the academic performance of children in primary schools in Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2(1), 267–273.
Oshagbemi, T. (2003). Personal correlates of job satisfaction: empirical evidence from UK universities. International Journal of social Economics, 30(11), 1210–1231.
Painter, S., Haladyna, T., & Hurwitz, S. (2007). Attracting beginning teachers: The incentives and organizational characteristics that matter. Planning and Changing, 38(1/2), 108–128.
Patterson, M. G., Warr, P. B., & West, M. A. (2004). Organizational climate and company performance: the role of employee affect and employee level. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(2), 193–216.
Punia, V., Punia, B. K., & Dhull, I. (2004). An exploration of managerial skills and organizational climate in the educational services. Journal of Services Research, 4(1), 141–160.
Reeves, J. B. (2010). Academic optimism and organizational climate: An elementary school effectiveness test of two measures. Doctoral dissertation. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. (UMI No. 3439839).
Reynolds, C. A. (2006). Perceptions of organizational climate and job satisfaction among full-time and part-time community college faculty. Doctoral dissertation. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. (UMI No. 3249026).
Robinson, T. (2010). Examining the impact of leadership style and school climate on student achievement. Doctoral dissertation. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. (304673825).
Rudolph, L. (2006). Decomposing teacher autonomy: A study investigating types of teacher autonomy and how it relates to job satisfaction. Doctoral dissertation. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. (UMI No. 3209981).
Russell, S. S., Spitzmuller, C., Lin, L. F., Stanton, J. M., Smith, P. C., & Ironson, G. H. (2004). Shorter can also be better: The abridged job in general scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64(5), 878–893.
Santhapparaj, A. S., & Alam, S. S. (2005). Job satisfaction among academic staff in private university in Malaysia. Journal of Social Sciences, 1(2), 72–76.
Schroeder, R. (2008). Job satisfaction of employees at a Christian university. Journal of Research on Christian Education, 17(2), 225–246.
Selamat, N., Samsu, N. Z., & Kamalu, N. S. M. (2013). The impact of organizational climate on teachers’ job performance. Educational Research e-Journal, 2(1), 72–82.
Smith, J. J. (2005). The relationship between school division climate and student achievement of school divisions in the commonwealth of Virginia. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/27267.
Smith, P. A., Hoy, W. K., & Sweetland, S. R. (2001). Organizational health of high schools and dimensions of faculty trust. Journal of Educational Leadership, 11(3), 135–151.
Sousa-Poza, A. (2000). Well-being at work: A cross-national analysis of the levels and determinants of job satisfaction. Journal of Socio-Economics, 29(6), 517–539.
Tziner, A., Shultz, T., & Fisher, T. (2008). Justice, leader-member exchange, and job performance: Are their relationships mediated by organizational culture? Psychological Reports, 103(3), 516–526.
Van Maele, D., & Van Houtte, M. (2012). The role of teacher and faculty trust in forming teachers’ job satisfaction: Do years of experience make a difference? Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(6), 879–889.
Vos, D., Van der Westhuizen, P. C., Mentz, P. J., & Ellis, S. M. (2012). Educators and the quality of their work environment: an analysis of the organizational climate in primary schools. South African Journal of Education, 32(1), 56–68.
Wahat, N. W. A. (2009). Organizational climate as a predictor to job satisfaction of new faculties in three public Universities of Malaysia. The Journal of Global Business Management, 5(1), 287–295.
Waters, K. K. (2013). The relationship between principals’ leadership styles and job satisfaction as perceived by primary school teachers across NSW independent schools. Doctoral thesis, University of Wollongong, Australia. Retrieved from: http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5081&context=theses.
Woods, A. M., & Weasmer, J. (2002). Maintaining job satisfaction: Engaging professionals as active participants. The Clearing House, 75(4), 186–189.
Yost, D. S. (2006). Reflection and self-efficacy: Enhancing the retention of qualified teachers from a teacher education perspective. Teacher Education Quarterly, 33(4), 59–74.
Zembylas, M., & Papanastasiou, E. (2006). Sources of teacher job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in Cyprus. Compare, 36(2), 229–247.
About this article
Cite this article
Ghavifekr, S., Pillai, N.S. The relationship between school’s organizational climate and teacher’s job satisfaction: Malaysian experience. Asia Pacific Educ. Rev. 17, 87–106 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-015-9411-8
- Organizational climate
- Job satisfaction