The relationship between school’s organizational climate and teacher’s job satisfaction: Malaysian experience

Abstract

The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between school organizational climate and teachers’ job satisfaction. A quantitative survey method was applied, and three broadly hypothesized relationships were tested with a sample of 245 teachers from six government secondary schools in district of Penampang, Sabah, Malaysia. The instrument used in this study was the modified version for combination of two questionnaires: Organizational Climate Index and the Teachers’ Job Satisfaction Questionnaire. The findings indicated that there is a significant positive relationship between school organizational climate and teachers’ job satisfaction. The teachers in this study were found to be fairly satisfied with their job, with the responsibility factor as the biggest contributor to job satisfaction. This study found that there is no significant difference in levels of job satisfaction between the teachers’ gender (male and female). Based on the years of service in their current school, there was a statically significant difference in the level of job satisfaction among the teachers. These findings revealed that the secondary schools in Sabah have a positive and open climate, with the professional teachers’ behaviour factor as the biggest contributor. The results of this study indicate the necessity to provide positive organizational climate and up keeping teachers’ job satisfaction by policy makers and principals with hope in enhancing the quality of schools in Malaysia.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Abdullah, M. M., Uli, J., & Parasuraman, B. (2009). Job satisfaction among secondary school teachers. Journal of Humanities, 13(1), 11–18.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Ali, T., & Akhter, I. (2009). Job satisfaction of faculty members in private university–in context of Bangladesh. International Business Research, 2(4), 167–175.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Ali, E., & Hale, E. (2009). Predicting organizational trust level of school managers and teachers at elementary schools. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 2180–2190.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Anderson, J. E., Guido-DiBrito, F., & Morrell, J. S. (2000). Factors that influence satisfaction for student affairs administrators. New Directions for Institutional Research, 2000(105), 99–110. doi:10.1002/ir.10509.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Azzara, J. R. (2001). The heart of school leadership. Educational Leadership, 58(4), 62–64.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bang, E., Kern, A. L., Luft, J. A., & Roehrig, G. H. (2007). First-year secondary school science teachers. School Science and Mathematics, 107(6), 258–261.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Belias, D. (2014). Organizational culture and job satisfaction, in banking sector—a review. International Journal of Human Resources Management, 3(2), 1–20.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Chang, M. (2009). An appraisal perspective of teacher burnout: examining the emotional work of teachers. Educational Psychology Review, 21(3), 193–218.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Clark, M. (2006). Teacher job satisfaction in secondary schools in southeastern Georgia. Doctoral dissertation. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. (UMI No. 3268441).

  10. Cohen, J., McCabe, E. M., Michelli, N. M., & Pickeral, T. (2009). School climate: Research, policy, teacher education and practice. Teachers College Record, 111(1), 180–213.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Cooil, B., Aksoy, L., Keiningham, T., & Maryott, K. (2009). The relationship of employee perceptions of organizational climate to business-unit outcomes: An MPLS approach. Journal of Service Research, 11(3), 277–294.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Cookson, P. W. (2005). Your first-year: Why teach? Teaching Pre K-8, 34(3), 14–21.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Creswell, J. W. (2012). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among the five traditions (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Dawson, J. F., González-Romá, V., Davis, A., & West, M. A. (2008). Organizational climate and climate strength in UK hospitals. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17(1), 89–111.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Dee, T. S. (2006). How a teacher’s gender affects boys and girls. Education Next, 6(4), 68–75.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Dhanapal, S., Alwie, S. M., Subramaniam, T., & Vashu, D. (2013). Factors affecting job satisfaction among academicians: a comparative study between gender and generations. Proceeding of the 2nd international conference on management, economics and finance, 48–69. Retrieved from: http://www.internationalconference.com.my/proceeding/icmef2013_proceeding/2ndicmef_proceeding/005_068_2ndICMEF2013_Proceeding_p048.pdf.

  17. Dickson, M., Smith, M. W., Grojean, M. C., & Ehrhart, M. W. (2001). An organizational climate regarding ethics: The outcome of leader values and the practices that reflect them. Leadership Quarterly, 12, 197–214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Douangphachanh, M. (2009). Job satisfaction and work motivation among lecturers in a university in Laos. Unpublished master’s research report, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  19. Duff, B. K. (2013). Differences in assessments of organizational school climate between teachers and administrators. Doctoral dissertation. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. (UMI No. 3559002).

  20. Duggan, M. H. (2008). Non-instructional staff perceptions of the college climate. New Directions for Community Colleges, 2008(142), 47–56. doi:10.1002/cc.324.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. 11.0 update (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Geving, A. M. (2007). Identifying the types of student and teacher behaviours associated with teacher stress. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 23(5), 624–640.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Goddard, R., Sweetland, S. R., & Hoy, W. K. (2000). Academic emphasis of urban elementary schools and student achievement in reading and mathematics: A multi-level analysis. Educational Administration Quarterly, 36(5), 683–702.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Grayson, J. L., & Alvarez, H. K. (2008). School climate factors relating to teacher burnout: A mediator model. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(5), 1349–1363.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Grojean, M., Resick, C., Dickson, M., & Smith, D. B. (2004). Leaders, values, and organizational climate: Examining leadership strategies for establishing an organizational climate regarding ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 55(3), 223–241.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Guildford, J. P. (1973). Fundamental statistics in psychology and education (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Hastings, R. P., & Bham, M. S. (2003). The relationship between student behaviour patterns and teacher burnout. School Psychology International, 24(1), 115–127.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Holt, C. R., & Smith, M. S. (2002). The relationship between school climate and student success. Arkansas Educational Research and Policy Studies Journal, 2(2), 52–64.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Hoy, W. K., & Miskel, C. G. (2008). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Hoy, W. K., Smith, P. A., & Sweetland, S. R. (2002). The development of the organizational climate index for high schools: Its measure and relationship to faculty trust. The High School Journal, 86(2), 38–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Ivancevich, J. M., Konopaske, R., & Matteson, M. T. (2008). Organizational behavior and management (8th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Kelley, R. C., Thornton, B., & Daugherty, R. (2005). Relationships between measures of leadership and school climate. Education, 126(1), 17–25.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Keuter, K., Byrne, E., Voell, J., & Larson, E. (2000). Nurses’ satisfaction and organizational climate in a dynamic work environment. Applied Nursing Research, 13(1), 46–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Kindt, C. A. (2008.) Relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction among middle school principals in central Florida. Doctoral dissertation. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. (UMI No. 3322928).

  35. Knox, J. A. (2011). Teachers’ perceptions of job satisfaction and school climate in an era of accountability: A mixed methods study of two high schools on Tennessee’s high priority list. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from http://trace.tennessee.edu.

  36. Le Cornu, R. (2009). Crossing Boundaries: Challenges of academics working in professional experiences. Refereed paper presented at ‘Teacher education crossing borders: Cultures, contexts, communities and curriculum’ the annual conference of the Australian Teacher Education Association (ATEA), Albury, 28 June–1 July. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED524613.pdf.

  37. Lester, P. E. (1987). Development and factor analysis of the teacher job satisfaction questionnaire. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 47(1), 223–233.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Lunenburg, F. C., & Ornstein, A. C. (2004). Educational administration: Concepts and practices (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Malik, N. I. (2011). Level of job satisfaction among university and college men and women teachers. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(3), 750–758.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Marzano, R. J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. A. (2005). School leadership that works: From research to results. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

    Google Scholar 

  41. Massengill, D., Mahlios, B., & Barry, A. (2005). Metaphors and sense of teaching: How these constructs influence novice teachers. Teaching Education, 16(3), 213–229.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Mbua, F. N. (2003). Educational administration: Theory and practice. Limbe, South West Province, Cameroon: Design House.

    Google Scholar 

  43. McMurray, A. J., Pace, R. W., & Scott, D. (2004). Research: A commonsense approach. Southbank, Victoria, Australia: Thomson Social Science Press.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Melnick, S. A., & Meister, D. G. (2008). A comparison of beginning and experienced teachers’ concerns. Educational Research Quarterly, 31(3), 39–56.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Mertler, C. A. (2002). Designing scoring rubrics for your classroom. In C. Boston (Ed.), Understanding scoring rubrics: A guide for teachers (pp. 72–81). College Park, Maryland: ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Mine, S. (2009). Leadership behaviors of school principals in relation to teacher job satisfaction in north Cyprus. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 2855–2864.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Ministry of Education. (2014). Educational management information system: Number of teachers. Retrieved from: http://emisportal.moe.gov.my/.

  48. Mohan, N., & Ashok, J. (2011). Organizational climate and attitude of teachers a co-relational study. European Journal of Social Sciences, 22(4), 599–610.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Najeemah Mohd Yusof. (2012). School climate and teachers’ commitment: a case study in Penang, Malaysia. International Journal of Economics Business and Management Studies, 1(2), 65–75.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Ngimbuzi, F. W. (2009). Job satisfaction among secondary school teachers in Tanzania: The case of Njombe district. Master’s thesis, University of Jyväskylä, Finland).Retrieved from: https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/bitstream/handle/123456789/25482/URN%3ANBN%3Afi%3Ajyu-201010152985.pdf?sequence=1.

  51. Nieuwoudt, A. M. (2012). Confirmatory factor analysis of the organizational climate measure: A South African perspective. Master’s dissertation. University of Pretoria, South Africa. Retrieved from http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/submitted/etd-05152012-122735/unrestricted/dissertation.pdf.

  52. Okoro, C. C., Ekanem, I. E., & Udoh, N. A. (2012). Teacher gender and the academic performance of children in primary schools in Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2(1), 267–273.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Oshagbemi, T. (2003). Personal correlates of job satisfaction: empirical evidence from UK universities. International Journal of social Economics, 30(11), 1210–1231.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Painter, S., Haladyna, T., & Hurwitz, S. (2007). Attracting beginning teachers: The incentives and organizational characteristics that matter. Planning and Changing, 38(1/2), 108–128.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Patterson, M. G., Warr, P. B., & West, M. A. (2004). Organizational climate and company performance: the role of employee affect and employee level. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(2), 193–216.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Punia, V., Punia, B. K., & Dhull, I. (2004). An exploration of managerial skills and organizational climate in the educational services. Journal of Services Research, 4(1), 141–160.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Reeves, J. B. (2010). Academic optimism and organizational climate: An elementary school effectiveness test of two measures. Doctoral dissertation. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. (UMI No. 3439839).

  58. Reynolds, C. A. (2006). Perceptions of organizational climate and job satisfaction among full-time and part-time community college faculty. Doctoral dissertation. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. (UMI No. 3249026).

  59. Robinson, T. (2010). Examining the impact of leadership style and school climate on student achievement. Doctoral dissertation. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. (304673825).

  60. Rudolph, L. (2006). Decomposing teacher autonomy: A study investigating types of teacher autonomy and how it relates to job satisfaction. Doctoral dissertation. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. (UMI No. 3209981).

  61. Russell, S. S., Spitzmuller, C., Lin, L. F., Stanton, J. M., Smith, P. C., & Ironson, G. H. (2004). Shorter can also be better: The abridged job in general scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64(5), 878–893.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Santhapparaj, A. S., & Alam, S. S. (2005). Job satisfaction among academic staff in private university in Malaysia. Journal of Social Sciences, 1(2), 72–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Schroeder, R. (2008). Job satisfaction of employees at a Christian university. Journal of Research on Christian Education, 17(2), 225–246.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Selamat, N., Samsu, N. Z., & Kamalu, N. S. M. (2013). The impact of organizational climate on teachers’ job performance. Educational Research e-Journal, 2(1), 72–82.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Smith, J. J. (2005). The relationship between school division climate and student achievement of school divisions in the commonwealth of Virginia. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/27267.

  66. Smith, P. A., Hoy, W. K., & Sweetland, S. R. (2001). Organizational health of high schools and dimensions of faculty trust. Journal of Educational Leadership, 11(3), 135–151.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Sousa-Poza, A. (2000). Well-being at work: A cross-national analysis of the levels and determinants of job satisfaction. Journal of Socio-Economics, 29(6), 517–539.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Tziner, A., Shultz, T., & Fisher, T. (2008). Justice, leader-member exchange, and job performance: Are their relationships mediated by organizational culture? Psychological Reports, 103(3), 516–526.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Van Maele, D., & Van Houtte, M. (2012). The role of teacher and faculty trust in forming teachers’ job satisfaction: Do years of experience make a difference? Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(6), 879–889.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Vos, D., Van der Westhuizen, P. C., Mentz, P. J., & Ellis, S. M. (2012). Educators and the quality of their work environment: an analysis of the organizational climate in primary schools. South African Journal of Education, 32(1), 56–68.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Wahat, N. W. A. (2009). Organizational climate as a predictor to job satisfaction of new faculties in three public Universities of Malaysia. The Journal of Global Business Management, 5(1), 287–295.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Waters, K. K. (2013). The relationship between principals’ leadership styles and job satisfaction as perceived by primary school teachers across NSW independent schools. Doctoral thesis, University of Wollongong, Australia. Retrieved from: http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5081&context=theses.

  73. Woods, A. M., & Weasmer, J. (2002). Maintaining job satisfaction: Engaging professionals as active participants. The Clearing House, 75(4), 186–189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Yost, D. S. (2006). Reflection and self-efficacy: Enhancing the retention of qualified teachers from a teacher education perspective. Teacher Education Quarterly, 33(4), 59–74.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Zembylas, M., & Papanastasiou, E. (2006). Sources of teacher job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in Cyprus. Compare, 36(2), 229–247.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Simin Ghavifekr.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ghavifekr, S., Pillai, N.S. The relationship between school’s organizational climate and teacher’s job satisfaction: Malaysian experience. Asia Pacific Educ. Rev. 17, 87–106 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-015-9411-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • School
  • Organizational climate
  • Teacher
  • Job satisfaction
  • Education
  • Malaysia