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Understanding teachers’ concerns about inclusive education


This study examined the concerns of regular elementary school teachers in Gurgaon, India, in order to work with students with disabilities in inclusive education settings. A total of 175 teachers responded to a two-part questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The data indicated that the teachers in Gurgaon, overall, were a little concerned about implementing inclusive education in their schools. Significant difference existed in teacher concerns whether they taught in government versus privately managed schools. Implications are discussed to address teacher concerns for inclusive education in India.

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Correspondence to Ajay Das.

Appendix: Concerns about Inclusive Education Scale: Revised

Appendix: Concerns about Inclusive Education Scale: Revised

Factor 1: classroom-related concerns

  1. 1.

    It would be difficult to maintain discipline in class.

  2. 2.

    It will be difficult to give equal attention to all students in an inclusive classroom.

  3. 3.

    I will not be able to cope with students with a disability who do not have adequate self-care skills (e.g., students who are not toilet trained).

  4. 4.

    It will be difficult to manage students with disruptive behavior.

  5. 5.

    I will not be able to cope up with the challenges posed by the diversity in the class room in terms of various disabilities.

  6. 6.

    In my school, pupil-teacher ratio is larger than what it must be in case of inclusion.

  7. 7.

    I am not proficient in operating special devices and equipment used by the special children.

  8. 8.

    I am not familiar with the modifications in teaching strategies and class environment that enhance the learning of the disabled children.

  9. 9.

    Students with disabilities will not be accepted by students without disabilities.

Factor 2: school-related concerns

  1. 10.

    My school will not have enough resources for implementing inclusion successfully.

  2. 11.

    There will be inadequate para-professional staff available to support students with disabilities (e.g., speech pathologist, physiotherapist, OT).

  3. 12.

    My school will have difficulty in accommodating students with various types of disabilities because of inappropriate infrastructure (for, e.g., architectural barriers).

  4. 13.

    There will not be special education teaching staff available to support inclusion.

Factor 3: self-related concerns

  1. 14.

    I do not have knowledge and skills required to teach students with disabilities.

  2. 15.

    I am not competent enough to use multi-sensory approach for students with different disabilities.

  3. 16.

    It will be difficult to keep all the students with or without disabilities focused during the class.

  4. 17.

    I do not have enough knowledge about inclusive practices.

Factor 4: academic achievement related concerns

  1. 18.

    The overall academic standard of the school will suffer.

  2. 19.

    The academic achievement of students without disabilities will be affected.

  3. 20.

    Special students create disciplinary problems.

Factor 5: management-related concerns

  1. 21.

    There will be inadequate administrative support to implement the inclusive education program.

  2. 22.

    It will be very difficult to include disabled students in co-curricular activities (e.g., including students with severe physical disabilities in playing sports such as cricket can be difficult).

  3. 23.

    Parents of children without disabilities may not like the idea of placing their children in the same classroom with students with disabilities.

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Yadav, M., Das, A., Sharma, S. et al. Understanding teachers’ concerns about inclusive education. Asia Pacific Educ. Rev. 16, 653–662 (2015).

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  • Concerns
  • Inclusion
  • Teachers
  • Disabilities
  • India