Asia Pacific Education Review

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 285–294 | Cite as

National construction of global education: a critical review of the national curriculum standards for South Korean global high schools

Article

Abstract

In this paper, the authors investigate what global visions of education are reflected in the selected national curriculum standards, with special reference to two seemingly contradictory forces: globalization and nationalism. This paper examines the socio-economic and cultural foundations of the curriculum and explains how the national curriculum for South Korean global high schools symbolically appropriates global education for the purpose of national competitiveness. Our findings show that, although the selected curriculum document alludes to the importance of international understanding and of global citizenship education, its primary objective is to provide students with knowledge and skills for national competitiveness and to uphold, rather than weaken, national identity in reaction to global pressures. This phenomenon is closely linked to the historical background of Koreanized globalization, in which the concept of segyehwa has been used as a catalyst for undertaking global education for the ends of global competiveness and national pride.

Keywords

Global education National curriculum Globalization Ethnic nationalism Global high schools 

References

  1. Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at large: Cultural dimensions of globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  2. Apple, M. W., Kenway, J., & Singh, M. (Eds.). (2005). Globalizing education: Policies, pedagogies and politics. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  3. Banks, J. (2008). Diversity, group identity, and citizenship education in a global age. Educational Researcher, 37(3), 129–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berger, S. (1996). Introduction. In S. Berger & R. Dore (Eds.), National diversity and global capitalism (pp. 1–25). Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bernstein, B. (1990). Class, codes and control (Vol. 4): The structuring of pedagogic discourse. London: Routledge. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bourdieu, P. (1999). The social conditions of the international circulation of ideas. In R. Shusterman (Ed.), Bourdieu: A critical reader. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  7. Brecher, J., Costello, T., & Smith, B. (2002). Globalization from below: The power of solidarity. Cambridge: South End Press.Google Scholar
  8. Cheongshim Global High School. (2013). Academics. Retrieved from http://eng.csia.hs.kr/school/objectives.asp.
  9. Cole, D. J. (1984). Multicultural education and global education: A possible merger. Theory into Practice, 23, 151–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Council of Chief State School Officers. (2006). Global education policy statement.Google Scholar
  11. Davies, S., & Guppy, N. (1997). Globalization and educational reforms in Anglo-American democracies. Comparative Education Review, 41(4), 435–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fairclough, N. (2003). Discourse and social change. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  13. Fanon, F. (1967). Black skin, white masks. New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  14. Han, K. G. (2007). The archaeology of the ethnically homogeneous nation-state and multiculturalism in Korea. Korea Journal, Winter, 8–31.Google Scholar
  15. Hanvey, R. G. (1982). An attainable global perspective. Theory into Practice, 21(3), 162–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hicks, D. (2003). Thirty years of global education: a reminder of key principles and precedents. Educational Review, 55(3), 265–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ho, L. (2009). Global multicultural citizenship education: A Singapore experience. The Social Studies, 100(6), 285–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jang, S. (Ed.). (2004). Why China receive hallyu. Seoul: Hakkohae. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  19. Jung, D. (2003). International education for global citizen. Seoul: Mungminsa. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  20. Kang, S. (2002). Democracy and human rights education in South Korea. Comparative Education, 38(3), 315–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim, S. (2000). Korea ad globalization (segyehwa): A framework for analysis. In S. Kim (Ed.), Korea’s globalization (pp. 1–28). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Kim, H. (2004). National identity in Korean curriculum. Canadian Social Studies, 38(3). Available on www.quasar.ualberta.ca/css.
  23. Koizumi, T. (1993). Interdependence and change in the global system. Lanham: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  24. Korea Overseas Information Service (1995). The segyehwa policy of Korea under president Kim Young Sam. Seoul: Korean Overseas Information Service (in Korean).Google Scholar
  25. Law, W. (2004). Globalization and citizenship education in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Comparative Education Review, 48(3), 253–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lee, S. (2003). Philosophy and historical development of international understanding education. In S. Lee (Ed.), Education for international understanding in a global age (pp. 8–29). Seoul: Hanul Academy. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  27. Lee, K. (2005). Assessing and situating “the Korean Wave (hallyu)” through a cultural studies lens. Asian communication Research, 9, 5–22.Google Scholar
  28. Lee, Y. (2007). Teachers working for change: Gender equity and the politics of teacher activism in South Korea. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 26(2), 143–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lee, Y., & Kim, W. (2010). South Korea’s meandering path to globalization in the late twentieth century. Asian Studies Review, 34, 309–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Korean Minjok Leadership Academy. (2013). The mission statement. Retrieved from http://english.minjok.hs.kr.
  31. Ministry of Education. (2003). Statement of education priorities for New Zealand. Wellington: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  32. Ministry of Education, & Human Resource Development. (2007). National curriculum for global high schools. Seoul: MEHRD.Google Scholar
  33. O’Sullivan, B. (1999). Global change and educational reform in Ontario and Canada. Canadian Journal of Education, 24(3), 311–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Oxfam. (2006). Education for global citizenship: A guide for schools. Oxford: Oxfam Development Education.Google Scholar
  35. Park, H. (2007). Emerging consumerism and the accelerated “education divide”: The case of specialized high schools in South Korea. Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, 5(2). Available on http://www.jceps.com/?pageID=article&articleID=108.
  36. Park, H. (2009). Immigration identities a post-colonial alternative. In Asia-Pacific Centre of Education for International Understanding (Ed.), Multicultural society and international understanding education (pp. 63–86). Seoul: Dongneok (in Korean).Google Scholar
  37. Rizvi, F. (2007). Postcolonialism and globalization in education. Cultural Studies ↔ Critical Methodologies, 7(3), 256–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Roman, L. (2003). Education and the contested meanings of “global citizenship”. Journal of Educational Change, 4, 269–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schweisfurth, M. (2006). Education for global citizenship: Teacher agency and curricular structure in Ontario schools. Educational Review, 58(1), 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Seth, M. (2002). Education fever: Society, politics, and the pursuit of schooling in South Korea. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  41. Sharon, A. C. (2008). Give peace a chance: The diminution of peace in global education in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada. Canadian Journal of Education, 31(4), 889–914.Google Scholar
  42. Shin, G. (2003). The paradox of Korean globalization. CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Sleeter, C. E., & Grant, C. A. (2003). Making choices for multicultural education: Five approaches to race, class, and gender. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  44. Sung, K. (2005). A critical review on the results of running the self-funded private high school. Korean Journal of Sociology of Education, 15(3), 179–204. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  45. Sung, Y.-K., & Apple, M. (2003). Democracy, technology, and curriculum: Lessons from Korea. In M. Apple (Ed.), The state and the politics of knowledge (pp. 177–192). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. Torres, C. A. (2002). Globalization, education, and citizenship: Solidarity versus markets? American Educational Research Journal, 39(2), 363–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. UNESCO. (2006). Teachers and educational quality: Monitoring global needs for 2015. Montreal, QC: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.Google Scholar
  48. Van Dijk, T. (2008). Discourse and power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  49. Watson, I. (2010). Multiculturalism in South Korea: A critical assessment. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 40(2), 337–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wee, C. J. W.-L. (2000). Capitalism and ethnicity: Creating ‘local’ culture in Singapore. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 1(1), 129–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Education Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of EducationKyung Hee UniversitySeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations