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Mg-rich calcite-producing marine bacterium Pseudovibrio sp. isolated from an ascidian in coral reefs at Okinawa, Japan

Abstract

Since the beginning of the last century, bacteria, including cyanobacteria, have been known to be involved in the extracellular formation and precipitation of CaCO3. It is also known that some marine bacteria form calcite granules in Ca-containing artificial media. However, a detailed analysis of these granules has not yet been performed. The objective of the present study was to isolate marine bacteria that form CaCO3 granules in a culture medium to analyze the structure of the granules in detail. Pseudovibrio sp. 01OK 105-5-5, belonging to the class Alphaproteobacteria, was isolated from an ascidian in a coral reef at On-na, Okinawa, Japan. It produced extracellular granules of CaCO3 in a Ca-containing artificial medium. X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry demonstrated that the extracellular granules contained Mg-rich calcite-like crystal polymorphs. This crystal form of CaCO3 was similar to that of Mg-rich calcite found in the skeletons of many marine invertebrates. This bacterium provides a promising tool for studying the mechanisms involved in the formation of Mg-rich biogenic calcite.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Ms. Seiko Matsuo for providing assistance with the ICP-AES analysis and Ms. Izumi Yamashima for assistance with identification of bacterial strains. We also thank Mr. Minoru Yasumoto for providing sampling assistance. We are grateful to Prof. Tadashi Maruyama of the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) for reviewing the manuscript. This work was supported by The Industrial Science and Technology Project for Technology Development of Biological Resources in Bioconsortia, funded by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan; the project “Construction of a Genetic Resource Library of Unidentified Microorganisms,” funded by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan; a Grant-in-Aid for Creative Basic Research No. 12NP0201 (DOBIS) funded by the Ministry of Education Culture, Sports Science, and Technology (MEXT), Japan; and by Grants-in-Aid from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (KAKENHI grant nos. 19K12310).

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Yasumoto-Hirose, M., Yasumoto, K., Iijima, M. et al. Mg-rich calcite-producing marine bacterium Pseudovibrio sp. isolated from an ascidian in coral reefs at Okinawa, Japan. Fish Sci 88, 625–634 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12562-022-01627-9

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Keywords

  • CaCO3
  • Calcite
  • Coral reef
  • Dumbbell-shaped granules
  • Marine bacteria