Conjugation with alginate oligosaccharide via the controlled Maillard reaction in a dry state is an effective method for the preparation of salmon myofibrillar protein with excellent anti-inflammatory activity
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The efficacy of the controlled Maillard reaction with alginate oligosaccharide (AO) in a dry state was examined for development of an anti-inflammatory compound from fish myofibrillar protein (Mf). Lyophilized Mf from spawned-out chum salmon was mixed with AO (half of the total protein weight) and incubated at 60 °C and 35 % relative humidity for 0–6 h, followed by digestion with pepsin and trypsin. The anti-inflammatory activity of the digested peptide was improved with the progress of the AO conjugation, and dMSA4 (prepared from Mf–AO conjugate by reaction for 4 h, with 49.6 μg/mg protein of AO attached) was most effective in inhibiting secretions of inflammation-related compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Likewise, dMSA4 suppressed the LPS-induced gene and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, while COX-1 expression was unaffected. Furthermore, oral administration of dMSA4 and the Mf–AO conjugate prior to proteolysis inhibited carrageenan-induced paw volume expansion in mice. These results indicate that AO conjugation using the controlled Maillard reaction in a dry state is a useful approach for enhancing the anti-inflammatory activity of salmon Mf as a nutraceutical food material.
KeywordsAlginate oligosaccharide Anti-inflammation Maillard reaction Muscle protein Salmon
We deeply appreciate the technical assistance of Mr. Yutaka Shimizu, Ph.D., Hokkaido University, for instruction on immunoblotting strategy. We deeply appreciate Hideki Kishimura, Associate Professor, Hokkaido University, for instruction on PCR strategy. We thank Hokkaido Mitsui Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., for supplying alginate oligosaccharide. Part of this work was supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency, A-STEP Program (FS stage), 2010.
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