Fisheries Science

, Volume 81, Issue 3, pp 453–461 | Cite as

The daily cycle of siphon extension behavior in the Manila clam controlled by endogenous rhythm

  • Shouji Houki
  • Tomohiko Kawamura
  • Takahiro Irie
  • Nam-Il Won
  • Yoshiro Watanabe
Original Article Biology


Periodicities in siphon extension behavior, which is considered an index of feeding behavior, of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum were investigated by sequential visual observations in water tanks under laboratory conditions. Most clams actively extended their siphons in the dark period and closed their shells in the light period under the 12L:12D condition, and this diel cycle of the siphon extension behavior was maintained even under constant light and dark conditions, indicating that Manila clams had an endogenous rhythm with a 24-h cycle. Although the Manila clam has been considered to have a circatidal rhythm in previous studies, a 24.8-h circatidal cycle of the siphon extension behavior was not observed in any of the experimental trials in this study. Although the diel cycle of the siphon extension behavior was temporally collapsed by supplying food after starvation for 10 days, the diel cycle recovered thereafter. This phenomenon indicates that the endogenous rhythm remains even if the cycle of the behavior is lost due to changes in physiological conditions like starvation or in external environments such as food availability.


Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum Siphon extension behavior Daily cycle Endogenous rhythm 

Supplementary material

12562_2015_859_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (332 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 332 kb)


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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shouji Houki
    • 1
  • Tomohiko Kawamura
    • 1
  • Takahiro Irie
    • 1
  • Nam-Il Won
    • 2
  • Yoshiro Watanabe
    • 1
  1. 1.Atmosphere and Ocean Research InstituteThe University of TokyoKashiwaJapan
  2. 2.K-water Institute (KWI) Korea Water Resources CorporationDaejeonKorea

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