Skip to main content

Comparison of growth histories of immature Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus between the autumn and winter spawning cohorts based on statolith and gladius analyses


Growth of the autumn and winter spawning cohorts of the Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus was examined based on daily growth increments in the statolith and gladius. The samples were taken from three groups of young (≤180 days old) squid: the autumn cohort collected in the Tsushima Current and the winter cohort collected in the Pacific near the coast and 1100 km offshore. The growth rate based on statolith analysis was highest in the winter cohort near the coast and similar in the two other groups. The daily growth based on gladius analysis during the month before capture was also highest in the winter cohort near the coast, and fluctuated more in the autumn cohort than in the winter cohort. The results suggest that gladius growth increments will be an important tool in future studies of growth in T. pacificus.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. Forsythe JW, Van Heukelem WF (1987) Growth. In: Boyle PR (ed) Cephalopod life cycles, vol 2. Academic, London, pp 135–156

  2. Forsythe JW (2004) Accounting for the effect of temperature on squid growth in nature: from hypothesis to practice. Mar Freshw Res 55:331–339

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Natsukari Y, Nakasone T, Oda K (1988) Age and growth of loliginid squid Photololigo edulis (Hoyle, 1885). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 116:117–190

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Rodhouse PG, Hatfield EMC (1990) Dynamics of growth and maturation in the cephalopod Illex argentinus de Castellanos, 1960 (Teuthoidea: Ommastrephidae). Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 329:229–241

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Information and Statistics Service (2010) FAO yearbook: fishery and aquaculture statistics, 2008. FAO, Rome, 2010, pp 72

  6. Murata M (1989) Population assessment, management and fishery forecasting for the Japanese common squid, Todarodes pacificus. In: Caddy JF (ed) Marine invertebrate fisheries: their assessment and management. Wiley, New York, pp 613–636

    Google Scholar 

  7. Sakurai Y, Kiyofuji H, Saitoh S, Goto T, Hiyama Y (2000) Changes in inferred spawning areas of Todarodes pacificus (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) due to changing environmental conditions. ICES J Mar Sci 57:24–30

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Ware DM (1975) Relation between egg size, growth, and natural mortality of larval fish. J Fish Res Board Can 32:2503–2512

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Anderson J (1988) A review of size dependent survival during pre-recruit stages in relation to recruitment. J Northwest Atl Fish Sci 8:55–66

    Google Scholar 

  10. Conover DO (1992) Seasonality and the scheduling of life history at different latitudes. J Fish Biol 41:161–178

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Nakamura Y, Sakurai Y (1991) Validation of daily growth increments in statoliths of Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus. Fish Res 57:2007–2011

    Google Scholar 

  12. FAO (1998) Squid recruitment dynamics: the genus Illex as a model. The commercial Illex species. Influences on variability. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper no. 376. FAO, Rome, 1998, pp 273

  13. Mitsumori A, Sakurai Y (2010) Effect of temperature to growth and reproduction of Todarodes pacificus. Report of the 2009 Annual Meeting of Squid Resources (Surumeika-shigen-hyouka-kyougikai-houkoku Heisei 21 nendo). Nat Fish Res Inst of Far Seas Fisheries, Shizuoka City, pp 53–54 (in Japanese)

  14. Bizikov VA (1991) A new method of squid age determination using the gladius. In: Jereb P, Ragonese S, von Boletzky S (eds) Squid age determination using statoliths (spec. publ. no. I). N.T.R.-I.T.P.P., Mazara del Vallo, pp 39–51

  15. Arkhipkin AI, Bizikov VA (1991) A comparative analysis of age and growth estimation using statolith and gladius in squids. In: Jereb P, Ragonese S, Boletzky SV (eds) Squids age determinations using statoliths: proceedings of the international workshop “Istituto di Tecnologia della pesca e del Pescato,” Mazzara del Vallo, Sicily, Italy, 9–14 October 1989 (spec. publ.). N.T.R.-I.T.T.P., Mazara del Vallo, 1:19–33

  16. Gv Hurley, Beck P (1979) The observation of growth rings in statoliths from the ommastrephid squid, Illex illecebrosus. Bull Am Malacol Union 1979:23–29

    Google Scholar 

  17. Lipinski MR (1980) A preliminary study on age of squids from their statoliths (NAFO SCR doc, Np. 22, serial no. NO55). Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization, Dartmouth, pp 17

  18. Perez JAA, O’Dor RK, Beck P, Dawe EG (1996) Evaluation of gladius dorsal surface structure for age and growth studies of the short-finned squid, Illex illecebrosus (Teuthoidea: Ommastrephidae). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 53:2837–2846

    Google Scholar 

  19. Bettencourt V, Coehlo L, Andrade JP, Guerra A (1996) Age and growth of Loligo vulgaris of south of Portugal by statolith analysis. J Moll Stud 62:359–366

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Collins MA, Burnell GM, Rodhouse PG (1995) Age and growth of the squid Loligo forbesi (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) in Irish waters. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 75:605–620

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Jackson GD, Forsythe JW, Hixon RD, Hanlon RT (1997) Age, growth, and maturation of Lolliguncula brevis (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico with a comparison of length–frequency versus statolith age analysis. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 54:2907–2919

    Google Scholar 

  22. Semmens JM, Moltschaniwskyj NA (2000) An examination of variable growth rates in the tropical squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana: a whole animal and reductionist approach. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 193:135–141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Hatfield E (2000) Do some like it hot? Temperature as a possible determinant of variability in the growth of the Patagonian squid, Loligo gahi (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae). Fish Res 47:27–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Arkhipkin AI, Jereb P, Ragonese S (2000) Growth and maturation in two successive seasonal groups of the short-finned squid, Illex coindetii, from the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean). ICES J Mar Sci 57:31–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Murata M (1990) Oceanic resources of squids. Mar Behav Physiol 18:19–71

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Sugawara M, Yamashita N, Sakaguchi K, Sato T, Sawamura M, Yasue N, Mori K, Fukuwaka M (2012) Growth equation of the winter spawning stock of Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus. Report of the 2011 Annual Meeting on Squid Resources (Surumeika-shigen-hyouka-kyougikai-houkoku Heisei 21 nendo). Nat Fish Res Inst of Far Seas Fisheries, Shizuoka City, pp 53–54 (in Japanese)

  27. Kidokoro H, Wada Y, Shikata T, Sano K, Uji R (1999) Growth of the Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus in the Sea of Japan in 1996 analyzed from statolith microstructure. Bull Jpn Sea Natl Fish Res Inst 49:129–135 (in Japanese with English abstract)

    Google Scholar 

  28. Kawabata A, Yatsu A, Ueno Y, Suyama S, Kurita Y (2006) Spatial distribution of the Japanese common squid, Todarodes pacificus, during its migration in the western North Pacific Ocean. Fish Oceanogr 15:113–124

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Kawabata A, Kubota S (2002) Characteristics of mantle length composition, maturity and stomach contents related to fluctuations of the migrant stock abundance of Todarodes pacificus around the Pacific coast of the northern Honshu, Japan. In: Proceedings of the 2001 Annual Meeting of Squid Stock Research (Ikarui-shigen-kenkyu-kaigi-houkoku Heisei 13 nendo). Hachinohe Branch, Tohoku Nat Fish Res Inst, Hachinohe, pp 10–16 (in Japanese)

  30. Mori K, Tsuchiya K, Nishida H, Kinoshita T (2002) Results of the research surveys of Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus) using the surface trawl net. In: Proceedings of the 2000 Annual Meeting of Squid Stock Research (Ikarui-shigen-kenkyu-kaigi-houkoku Heisei 12 nendo). Nat Fish Res Inst of Far Seas Fisheries, Shizuoka City, pp 12–21 (in Japanese)

  31. Takahashi M, Watanabe Y, Kinoshita T, Watanabe C (2001) Growth of larval and early juvenile Japanese anchovy, Engraulis japonicus, in the Kuroshio–Oyashio transition region. Fish Oceanogr 10:235–247

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. O’Dor RK, Durward RD, Vessey E, Amaratunga T (1980) Feeding and growth in captive squid, Illex illecebrosus, and the influence of food availability on growth in the natural population. ICNAF Sel Papers 6:15–21

    Google Scholar 

  33. Jackson GD, Moltschaniwskyj NA (2001) The influence of ration level on growth and statolith increment width of the tropical squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae): an experimental approach. Mar Biol 138:819–825

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Leporati SC, Pecl GT, Semmens JM (2007) Cephalopod hatchling growth: the effects of initial size and seasonal temperatures. Mar Biol 151:1375–1383

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. André J, Pecl GT, Grist EPM, Semmens JM, Haddon M, Leporati SC (2009) Modelling size-at-age in wild immature female octopus: a bioenergetics approach. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 384:159–174

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Jackson GD (1994) Application and future potential of statolith increment analysis in squids and sepiolids. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 51:2612–2625

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Collins MA, Boyle PR, Pierce GJ, Key LN, Hughes SE, Murphy J (1999) Resolution of multiple cohorts in the Loligo forbesi population from the west of Scotland. ICES J Mar Sci 56:500–509

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Grist EPM, Jackson GD, Meekan MG (2011) Does a snapshot show the whole picture? Intrinsic limitations to growth inference of the short lived and fast growing. Environ Biol Fish 90:111–120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Challier L, Orr P, Robin J-P (2006) Introducing inter-individual growth variability in the assessment of a cephalopod population: application to the English Channel squid Loligo forbesi. Oecologia 150:17–28

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


We thank John Bower for his helpful comments and suggestions not only on the manuscript, but also in the research that led to this work. We also thank the captain, officers, and crew of the T/S Hokuho Maru for collecting the samples, without which this work could not have been done. This study was supported by the Fisheries Agency of Japan’s promotion program for marine fisheries stock assessment and evaluation for Japanese waters, and was partially sponsored by the Iwate Prefectural Fisheries Technology Center. Funding was also provided by a Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho) Scholarship to the first author.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hyejin Song.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Song, H., Yamashita, N., Kidokoro, H. et al. Comparison of growth histories of immature Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus between the autumn and winter spawning cohorts based on statolith and gladius analyses. Fish Sci 78, 785–790 (2012).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Age
  • Growth
  • Gladius
  • Statolith
  • Todarodes pacificus