Occurrence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) in Groundwater from a Karst Aquifer System in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico
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The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico hosts a karst aquifer system that is the only source of freshwater for the area; however, it is vulnerable to human-mediated contamination. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most abundant RNA viruses associated with human feces, making it a viable indicator for tracking fecal pollution in aquatic environments, including groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples collected from a karst aquifer from fresh and brackish water locations were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria, somatic and male F+ specific coliphages, and PMMoV during the rainy and dry seasons. Total coliform bacteria were detected at all sites, whereas Escherichia coli were found at relatively low levels <40 MPN/100 ml. The highest average concentrations of somatic and male F+ specific coliphages were 920 and 330 plaque forming units per 100 ml, respectively, detected in freshwater during the rainy season. PMMoV RNA was detected in 85% of the samples with gene sequences sharing 99–100% of nucleotide identity with PMMoV sequences available in GenBank. Quantification of PMMoV genome copies (GC) by quantitative real-time PCR indicated concentrations ranging from 1.7 × 101 to 1.0 × 104 GC/L, with the highest number of GC detected during the rainy season. No significant correlation was observed between PMMoV occurrence by season or water type (p > 0.05). Physicochemical and indicator bacteria were not correlated with PMMoV concentrations. The abundance and prevalence of PMMoV in the karst aquifer may reflect its environmental persistence and its potential as a fecal indicator in this karst aquifer system.
KeywordsFecal indicator Groundwater Pepper mild mottle virus Karst Yucatan Peninsula
We wish to thank undergraduate students, Ramón Vega Vázquez, Hans Cristian Basilio Cortés, Guadalupe del Carmen Albornoz Negroe, and Delia Maleny Chan Correa for their assistance in obtaining PMMoV sequences. We also extend our special thanks to Dr. Gerardo López and M.C. Francisco Javier García Villalobos for their technical assistance with qPCR. Also we acknowledge the many anonymous wastewater treatment plant personnel in the Riviera Maya, Quintana Roo, México for their cooperation and assistance with sample collections. Gerardo Ávila Torres was supported by a master degree scholarship (Number 575182) from Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (Conacyt). This project (Number 216093) was funded by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (Conacyt)/“Proyectos de Desarrollo Científico para Atender Problemas Nacionales 2013.” The corresponding author wants to thank the Red Mexicana de Virología/Redes temáticas Conacyt, for a travel award.
This study was funded by Grant Number 216093 by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (Conacyt)/“Proyectos de Desarrollo Científico para Atender Problemas Nacionales 2013.” Gerardo Ávila Torres was supported by a master degree scholarship Number 575182 from Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (Conacyt). Cecilia Hernández Zepeda received a travel award from the Red Mexicana de Virología.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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