The Prevalence of Human Parainfluenza Virus 1 on Indoor Office Fomites
- 127 Downloads
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of fomites in human parainfluenza virus 1 (HPIV1) transmission by assessing the occurrence of HPIV1 on surfaces in an adult setting (office). In 2004, a total of 328 fomites from 12 different office buildings in five different cities were evaluated for HPIV1 viral RNA. HPIV1 was isolated using reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) and detected on 37% of all office fomites. HPIV1 RNA was frequently isolated on desk tops (47%), and infrequently isolated on light switches (19%). Data revealed a statistically significant difference between the percentage of HPIV1 positive fomites in office cubicles and conference rooms (Chi-square P < 0.011, Fisher’s Exact P = 0.054). A statistically significant difference was also found among positive fomites in different buildings (Chi-square P < 0.011). HPIV1 was consistently isolated on various indoor fomites in the 12 office buildings assessed during 2004, a low HPIV incident year.
KeywordsParainfluenza 1 virus Respiratory virus Fomites Offices RT–PCR
- Abad, F. X., Pinto, R. M., & Bosch, A. (1994). Survival of enteric viruses on environmental fomites. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 60, 3704–3710.Google Scholar
- Alguilar, J. C., Perez-Brena, M. P., Garcia, M. L., Cruz, N., Erdman, D. D., & Echevarria, J. E. (2000). Detection and identification of human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3 and 4 clinical samples of pediatric patients by multiplex reverse transcription–PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38, 1191–1195.Google Scholar
- CDC Center for Disease Control. (2009). National Center for infectious diseases, respiratory and enteric branch; human parainfluenza viruses. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/revb/respiratory/hpivfeat.htm. Accessed November, 2009.
- Falsey, A. R., Cunningham, C. K., Baker, W. H., Kouides, R. W., Yuen, J. B., Menegus, M., et al. (1995). Respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A infections in hospitalized elderly. Journal of Infectious Disease, 172, 389–394.Google Scholar
- Fiore, A. E., Iverson, C., Messmer, T., Erdman, D., Lett, S. M., Talkington, D. F., et al. (1998). Outbreak of pneumonia in a long-term care facility; antecedent human parainfluenza virus 1 infection may predispose to bacterial pneumonia. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 46, 1112–1117.Google Scholar
- Glezen, W. P., & Floyd, W. D. (1997). Parainfluenza viruses. In A. S. Evans & R. Kaslow (Eds.), Viral infections in humans, epidemiology and control (4th ed., pp. 552–554). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
- Hendrickson, K. J. (2003). Parainfluenza viruses. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 16, 2242–2264.Google Scholar
- Louie, J. K., Hacker, J. K., Gonzales, R., Mark, J., Maselli, J. H., Yagi, S., et al. (2005). Characterization of viral agents causing acute respiratory infection in a San Francisco University medical center clinic during influenza season. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 41, 822–828.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mclean, O. M., Bannatyne, R. M., & Givan, K. F. (1967). Myomxovirus dissemination by air. Journal of Canadian Medical Association, 96, 1449–1453.Google Scholar
- Sattar, S. A. (2001). Survival of microorganisms on animate and inanimate surfaces and their disinfection. In W. A. Rutala (Ed.), Disinfection, sterilization and antisepsis: Principles and practices in healthcare facilities (pp. 195–205). Washington, DC: Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc.Google Scholar
- USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2004). Quality assurance/quality control guidance for laboratories performing PCR analyses on environmental samples. http://www.epa.gov/microbes/qa_qc_pcr10_04.pdf. Accessed November, 2009.