Issues Concerning Survival of Viruses on Surfaces
- 500 Downloads
Viruses are the causative agents of an estimated 60% of human infections worldwide. The most common viral illnesses are produced by enteric and respiratory viruses. Transmission of these viruses from an infected person or animal to a new host can occur via several routes. Existing studies strongly suggest that contaminated fomites or surfaces play an important role in the spreading of viral diseases. The potential of viral spreading via contaminated surfaces depends particularly on the ability of the virus to maintain infectivity whilst it is in the environment. This is affected by a combination of biological, physical and chemical factors. This review summarises current knowledge about the influence of environmental factors on the survival and spread of viruses via contaminated surfaces.
KeywordsPathogenic viruses Environmental factors Surveillance Biofilms
This study was supported by Grants No. MZE0002716202 (Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic), OC08045 (support of the Cost Action 929) and AdmireVet (Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic), Cost Action 929 ENVIRONET of Brussels, EC and the Italian National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention. The authors wish to thank Maria Vass (Scientific Editing Services, firstname.lastname@example.org) for grammatical corrections of the manuscript.
- Assar, S. K., & Block, S. S. (2000). Survival of microorganisms in the environment. In S. S. Block (Ed.), Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation. Philadelphia: Lippinkott-Williams.Google Scholar
- Casella, M. L., & Schmidt-Lorenz, W. (1989). Disinfection with gaseous formaldehyde. Third Part: bactericidal and sporicidal effectiveness of gaseous formaldehyde and level of residues in dependence on concentration, temperature and relative humidity. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, 188(6), 533–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Helmi, K., Skraber, S., Gantzer, C., Willame, R., Hoffmann, L., & Cauchie, H. M. (2008). Interactions of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, vaccinal poliovirus type 1, and bacteriophages phi X174 and MS2 with a drinking water biofilm and a wastewater biofilm. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74, 2079–2088.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hock, C., & Botzenhart, K. (2002). Detection of enteric viruses in biofilms of the drinking water system. Melbourne: 3rd IWA World Water Congress.Google Scholar
- Hock, C., & Botzenhart, K. (2003). Auftreten von Obligat und Fakultative Pathogenen Organismen in Trinkwasser-Biofilmen: Viren. In H.-C. Fleming (Ed.) Erfassung des Wachstums und des Kontaminationspotenzials von Biofilmen in der Verteilung von Trinkwasser (pp. 160–185). Mülheim an der Ruhr: Berichte aus dem IWW Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wasserforschung gemeinnützige GmbH, band 36.Google Scholar
- Lehtola, M. J., Torvinen, E., Kusnetsov, J., Pitkanen, T., Maunula, L., von Bonsdorff, C. H., et al. (2007). Survival of Mycobacterium avium, Legionella pneumophila, Escherichia coli, and caliciviruses in drinking water-associated biofilms grown under high-shear turbulent flow. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, 2854–2859.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scherer, K., Mäde, D., Ellerbroek, L., Schulenburg, J., Johne, R., & Klein, G. (2009). Application of a swab sampling method for the detection of noroviruses and rotaviruses on artificially contaminated food and environmental surfaces. Food and Environmental Virology, 1, 42–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Storey, M. V., & Ashbolt, N. J. (2003a). A risk model for enteric virus accumulation and release from recycled water distribution pipe biofilms. 3rd World Water Congress: Efficient Water Supply and Water Reuse, 3, 93–100.Google Scholar
- Theilen, U., Wilsberg, F. J., Bohm, R., & Strauch, D. (1987). Aerosol disinfection of bacterial spores. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie und Hygiene. 1. Abt. Originale B, Hygiene, 184(3–4), 229–252.Google Scholar
- Todd, E. C., Greig, J. D., Bartleson, C. A., & Michaels, B. S. (2009). Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 6. Transmission and survival of pathogens in the food processing and preparation environment. Journal of Food Protection, 72, 202–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar