Food and Environmental Virology

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 24–34 | Cite as

Issues Concerning Survival of Viruses on Surfaces

  • P. VasickovaEmail author
  • I. Pavlik
  • M. Verani
  • A. Carducci
Review Paper


Viruses are the causative agents of an estimated 60% of human infections worldwide. The most common viral illnesses are produced by enteric and respiratory viruses. Transmission of these viruses from an infected person or animal to a new host can occur via several routes. Existing studies strongly suggest that contaminated fomites or surfaces play an important role in the spreading of viral diseases. The potential of viral spreading via contaminated surfaces depends particularly on the ability of the virus to maintain infectivity whilst it is in the environment. This is affected by a combination of biological, physical and chemical factors. This review summarises current knowledge about the influence of environmental factors on the survival and spread of viruses via contaminated surfaces.


Pathogenic viruses Environmental factors Surveillance Biofilms 



This study was supported by Grants No. MZE0002716202 (Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic), OC08045 (support of the Cost Action 929) and AdmireVet (Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic), Cost Action 929 ENVIRONET of Brussels, EC and the Italian National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention. The authors wish to thank Maria Vass (Scientific Editing Services, for grammatical corrections of the manuscript.


  1. Abad, F. X., Pinto, R. M., & Bosch, A. (1994). Survival of enteric viruses on environmental fomites. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 60, 3704–3710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abad, F. X., Villena, C., Guix, S., Caballero, S., Pinto, R. M., & Bosch, A. (2001). Potential role of fomites in the vehicular transmission of human astroviruses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67, 3904–3907.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ansari, S. A., Sattar, S. A., Springthorpe, V. S., Wells, G. A., & Tostowaryk, W. (1988). Rotavirus survival on human hands and transfer of infectious virus to animate and nonporous inanimate surfaces. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 26, 1513–1518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Assar, S. K., & Block, S. S. (2000). Survival of microorganisms in the environment. In S. S. Block (Ed.), Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation. Philadelphia: Lippinkott-Williams.Google Scholar
  5. Baert, L., Uyttendaele, M., Vermeersch, M., Van Coillie, E., & Debeverei, J. (2008). Survival and transfer of murine norovirus 1, a surrogate for human noroviruses, during the production process of deep-frozen onions and spinach. Journal of Food Protection, 71, 1590–1597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bajolet, O., & Chippaux-Hyppolite, C. (1998). Rotaviruses and other diarrheal viruses. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique, 91, 432–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Barker, J., Stevens, D., & Bloomfield, S. F. (2001). Spread and prevention of some common viral infections in community facilities and domestic homes. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 91, 7–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barker, J., Vipond, I. B., & Bloomfield, S. F. (2004). Effects of cleaning and disinfection in reducing the spread of norovirus contamination via environmental surfaces. Journal of Hospital Infection, 58, 42–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bidawid, S., Farber, J. M., & Sattar, S. A. (2000). Contamination of foods by food handlers: Experiments on hepatitis A virus transfer to food and its interruption. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66, 2759–2763.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boone, S. A., & Gerba, C. P. (2007). Significance of foraites in the spread of respiratory and enteric viral disease. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, 1687–1696.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brady, M. T., Evans, J., & Cuartas, J. (1990). Survival and disinfection of parainfluenza viruses on environmental surfaces. American Journal of Infection Control, 18, 18–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Briandet, R., Lacroix-Gueu, P., Renault, M., Lecart, S., Meylheuc, T., Bidnenko, E., et al. (2008). Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study diffusion and reaction of bacteriophages inside biofilms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74, 2135–2143.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Butot, S., Putallaz, T., & Sanchez, G. (2008). Effects of sanitation, freezing and frozen storage on enteric viruses in berries and herbs. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 126, 30–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Carter, M. J. (2005). Enterically infecting viruses: pathogenicity, transmission and significance for food and waterborne infection. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 98, 1354–1380.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Casella, M. L., & Schmidt-Lorenz, W. (1989). Disinfection with gaseous formaldehyde. Third Part: bactericidal and sporicidal effectiveness of gaseous formaldehyde and level of residues in dependence on concentration, temperature and relative humidity. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, 188(6), 533–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chang, J. C. H., Ossoff, S. F., Lobe, D. C., Dorfman, M. H., Dumais, C. M., Qualls, R. G., et al. (1985). UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 49, 1361–1365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cliver, D. O. (2009). Control of viral contamination of food and environment. Food and Environmental Virology, 1, 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cliver, D. O., & Hermann, J. E. (1972). Proteolytic and microbial inactivation of enteroviruses. Water Research, 6, 338–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cook, N. (2003). The use of NASBA for the detection of microbial pathogens in food and environmental samples. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 53, 165–174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Croci, L., De Medici, D., Scalfaro, C., Fiore, A., & Toti, L. (2002). The survival of hepatitis A virus in fresh produce. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 73, 29–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Davey, M. E., & O’toole, G. A. (2000). Microbial biofilms: from ecology to molecular genetics. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 64, 847–867.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Deng, M. Y., & Cliver, D. O. (1992). Inactivation of poliovirus type-1 in mixed human and swine wastes and by bacteria from swine manure. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 58, 2016–2021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Deng, M. Y., & Cliver, D. O. (1995a). Antiviral effects of bacteria isolated from manure. Microbial Ecology, 30, 43–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Deng, M. Y., & Cliver, D. O. (1995b). Persistence of inoculated hepatitis-A virus in mixed human and animal wastes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61, 87–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Doultree, J. C., Druce, J. D., Birch, C. J., Bowden, D. S., & Marshall, J. A. (1999). Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a Norwalk virus surrogate. Journal of Hospital Infection, 41, 51–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Duizer, E., Bijkerk, P., Rockx, B., de Groot, A., Twisk, F., & Koopmans, M. (2004). Inactivation of caliciviruses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70, 4538–4543.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Duran, A. E., Muniesa, M., Moce-Llivina, L., Campos, C., Jofre, J., & Lucena, F. (2003). Usefulness of different groups of bacteriophages as model micro-organisms for evaluating chlorination. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 95, 29–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Faundez, G., Troncoso, M., Navarrete, P., & Figueroa, G. (2004). Antimicrobial activity of copper surfaces against suspensions of Salmonella enterica and Campylobacter jejuni. BMC Microbiology, 4, 19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fischer, T. K., Steinsland, H., & Valentiner-Branth, P. (2002). Rotavirus particles can survive storage in ambient tropical temperatures for more than 2 months. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 40, 4763–4764.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gerba, C. P. (1984). Applied and theoretical aspects of virus adsorption to surfaces. Advances in Applied Microbiology, 30, 133–168.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gerba, C. P., Gramos, D. M., & Nwachuku, N. (2002). Comparative inactivation of enteroviruses and adenovirus 2 by UV light. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68, 5167–5169.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Goldmann, D. A. (2000). Transmission of viral respiratory infections in the home. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 19, S97–S102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Goodgame, R. (2006). Norovirus gastroenteritis. Current Gastroenterology Reports, 8, 401–408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gulati, B. R., Allwood, P. B., Hedberg, C. W., & Goyal, S. M. (2001). Efficacy of commonly used disinfectants for the inactivation of calicivirus on strawberry, lettuce, and a food-contact surface. Journal of Food Protection, 64, 1430–1434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gwaltney, J. M., & Hendley, J. O. (1982). Transmission of experimental rhinovirus infection by contaminated surfaces. American Journal of Epidemiology, 116, 828–833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hall, C. B., Douglas, R. G., & Geiman, J. M. (1980). Possible transmission by fomites of respiratory syncytial virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 141, 98–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Helmi, K., Skraber, S., Gantzer, C., Willame, R., Hoffmann, L., & Cauchie, H. M. (2008). Interactions of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, vaccinal poliovirus type 1, and bacteriophages phi X174 and MS2 with a drinking water biofilm and a wastewater biofilm. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74, 2079–2088.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hendley, J. O., Wenzel, R. P., & Gwaltney, J. M. (1973). Transmission of rhinovirus colds by self-inoculation. New England Journal of Medicine, 288, 1361–1364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Henrickson, K. J., Hoover, S., Kehl, K. S., & Hua, W. M. (2004). National disease burden of respiratory viruses detected in children by polymerase chain reaction. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 23, S11–S18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Herrmann, J. E., Kostenbader, K. D., Jr, & Cliver, D. O. (1974). Persistence of enteroviruses in lake water. Applied Microbiology, 28, 895–896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hewitt, J., & Greening, G. E. (2004). Survival and persistence of norovirus, hepatitis A virus, and feline calicivirus in marinated mussels. Journal of Food Protection, 67, 1743–1750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hijnen, W. A. M., Beerendonk, E. F., & Medema, G. J. (2006). Inactivation credit of UV radiation for viruses, bacteria and protozoan (oo)cysts in water: A review. Water Research, 40, 3–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hock, C., & Botzenhart, K. (2002). Detection of enteric viruses in biofilms of the drinking water system. Melbourne: 3rd IWA World Water Congress.Google Scholar
  44. Hock, C., & Botzenhart, K. (2003). Auftreten von Obligat und Fakultative Pathogenen Organismen in Trinkwasser-Biofilmen: Viren. In H.-C. Fleming (Ed.) Erfassung des Wachstums und des Kontaminationspotenzials von Biofilmen in der Verteilung von Trinkwasser (pp. 160–185). Mülheim an der Ruhr: Berichte aus dem IWW Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wasserforschung gemeinnützige GmbH, band 36.Google Scholar
  45. Howie, R., Alfa, M. J., & Coombs, K. (2008). Survival of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses on surfaces compared with other micro-organisms and impact of suboptimal disinfectant exposure. Journal of Hospital Infection, 69, 368–376.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hurst, C. J., Gerba, C. P., & Cech, I. (1980). Effects of environmental variables and soil characteristics on virus survival in soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 40, 1067–1079.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Husman, A. M. D., Bijkerk, P., Lodder, W., van den Berg, H., Pribil, W., Cabaj, A., et al. (2004). Calicivirus inactivation by nonionizing (253.7-nanometer-wavelength [UV]) and ionizing (Gamma) radiation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70, 5089–5093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Iriarte, F. B., Balogh, B., Momol, M. T., Smith, L. M., Wilson, M., & Jones, J. B. (2007). Factors affecting survival of bacteriophage on tomato leaf surfaces. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, 1704–1711.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kesson, A. M. (2007). Respiratory virus infections. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 8, 240–248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kiseleva, L. F. (1971). Survival of poliomyelitis, ECHO and coxsackie viruses in some food products. Voprosy Pitaniia, 30, 58–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Koopmans, M., & Duizer, E. (2004). Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 90, 23–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kurdziel, A. S., Wilkinson, N., Langton, S., & Cook, N. (2001). Survival of poliovirus on soft fruit and salad vegetables. Journal of Food Protection, 64, 706–709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lacroix-Gueu, P., Briandet, R., Leveque-Fort, S., Bellon-Fontaine, M. N., & Fontaine-Aupart, M. P. (2005). In situ measurements of viral particles diffusion inside mucoid biofilms. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 328, 1065–1072.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lamhoujeb, S., Fliss, I., Ngazoa, S. E., & Jean, J. (2009). Molecular study of the persistence of infectious human norovirus on food-contact surfaces. Food and Environmental Virology, 1, 51–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lee, J., Zoh, K., & Ko, G. (2008). Inactivation and UV disinfection of murine norovirus with TiO2 under various environmental conditions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74, 2111–2117.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Lehtola, M. J., Torvinen, E., Kusnetsov, J., Pitkanen, T., Maunula, L., von Bonsdorff, C. H., et al. (2007). Survival of Mycobacterium avium, Legionella pneumophila, Escherichia coli, and caliciviruses in drinking water-associated biofilms grown under high-shear turbulent flow. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, 2854–2859.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Leung, A. K. C., Kellner, J. D., & Davies, H. D. (2005). Rotavirus gastroenteritis. Advances in Therapy, 22, 476–487.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Marks, P. J., Vipond, I. B., Carlisle, D., Deakin, D., Fey, R. E., & Caul, E. O. (2000). Evidence for airborne transmission of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) in a hotel restaurant. Epidemiology and Infection, 124, 481–487.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Mattison, K., Karthikeyan, K., Abebe, M., Malik, N., Sattar, S. A., Farber, J. M., et al. (2007). Survival of calicivirus in foods and on surfaces: Experiments with feline calicivirus as a surrogate for norovirus. Journal of Food Protection, 70, 500–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Mbithi, J. N., Springthorpe, V. S., Boulet, J. R., & Sattar, S. A. (1992). Survival of hepatitis-A virus on human hands and its transfer on contact with animate and inanimate surfaces. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 30, 757–763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Mbithi, J. N., Springthorpe, V. S., & Sattar, S. A. (1991). Effect of relative-humidity and air-temperature on survival of hepatitis-A virus on environmental surfaces. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 57, 1394–1399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Moce-Llivina, L., Papageorgiou, G. T., & Jofre, J. (2006). A membrane-based quantitative carrier test to assess the virucidal activity of disinfectants and persistence of viruses on porous fomites. Journal of Virological Methods, 135, 49–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Moe, K., & Shirley, J. A. (1982). The effects of relative-humidity and temperature on the survival of human rotavirus in feces. Archives of Virology, 72, 179–186.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Noyce, J. O., Michels, H., & Keevil, C. W. (2006). Potential use of copper surfaces to reduce survival of epidemic meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the healthcare environment. Journal of Hospital Infection, 63, 289–297.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Noyce, J. O., Michels, H., & Keevil, C. W. (2007). Inactivation of influenza A virus on copper versus stainless steel surfaces. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, 2748–2750.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Nwachuku, N., Gerba, C. P., Oswald, A., & Mashadi, F. D. (2005). Comparative inactivation of adenovirus serotypes by UV light disinfection. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71, 5633–5636.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Quignon, F., Sardin, M., Kiene, L., & Schwartzbrod, L. (1997). Poliovirus-1 inactivation and interaction with biofilm: A pilot-scale study. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63, 978–982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Rzezutka, A., & Cook, N. (2004). Survival of human enteric viruses in the environment and food. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 28, 441–453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Sagripanti, J. L., & Lytle, C. D. (2007). Inactivation of influenza virus by solar radiation. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 83, 1278–1282.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Sattar, S. A., Karim, Y. G., Springthorpe, V. S., & Johnson-Lussenburg, C. M. (1987). Survival of human rhinovirus type-14 dried onto nonporous inanimate surfaces—effect of relative-humidity and suspending medium. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 33, 802–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sattar, S. A., Lloydevans, N., Springthorpe, V. S., & Nair, R. C. (1986). Institutional outbreaks of rotavirus diarrhoea—potential role of fomites and environmental surfaces as vehicles for virus transmission. Journal of Hygiene, 96, 277–289.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Scherer, K., Mäde, D., Ellerbroek, L., Schulenburg, J., Johne, R., & Klein, G. (2009). Application of a swab sampling method for the detection of noroviruses and rotaviruses on artificially contaminated food and environmental surfaces. Food and Environmental Virology, 1, 42–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Seymour, I. J., & Appleton, H. (2001). Foodborne viruses and fresh produce. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 91, 759–773.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Simonet, J., & Gantzer, C. (2006). Inactivation of poliovirus 1 and F-specific RNA phages and degradation of their genomes by UV irradiation at 254 nanometres. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72, 7671–7677.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Sizun, J., Yu, M. W. N., & Talbot, P. J. (2000). Survival of human coronaviruses 229E and OC43 in suspension and after drying on surfaces: a possible source of hospital-acquired infections. Journal of Hospital Infection, 46, 55–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Skraber, S., Schijven, J., Gantzer, C., & de Roda Husman, A. M. (2005). Pathogenic viruses in drinking-water biofilms: a public health risk? Biofilms, 2, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stine, S. W., Song, I., Choi, C. Y., & Gerba, C. P. (2005). Effect of relative humidity on preharvest survival of bacterial and viral pathogens on the surface of cantaloupe, lettuce, and bell peppers. Journal of Food Protection, 68, 1352–1358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Storey, M. V., & Ashbolt, N. J. (2001). Persistence of two model enteric viruses (B40-8 and MS-2 bacteriophages) in water distribution pipe biofilms. Water Science and Technology, 43, 133–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Storey, M. V., & Ashbolt, N. J. (2003a). A risk model for enteric virus accumulation and release from recycled water distribution pipe biofilms. 3rd World Water Congress: Efficient Water Supply and Water Reuse, 3, 93–100.Google Scholar
  80. Storey, M. V., & Ashbolt, N. J. (2003b). Enteric virions and microbial biofilms—a secondary source of public health concern? Water Science and Technology, 48, 97–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Sutherland, I. W., Hughes, K. A., Skillman, L. C., & Tait, K. (2004). The interaction of phage and biofilms. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 232, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Theilen, U., Wilsberg, F. J., Bohm, R., & Strauch, D. (1987). Aerosol disinfection of bacterial spores. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie und Hygiene. 1. Abt. Originale B, Hygiene, 184(3–4), 229–252.Google Scholar
  83. Thurman, R. B., & Gerba, C. P. (1988). Characterization of the effect of aluminium metal on poliovirus. Journal of Industrial Microbiology, 3, 33–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tiwari, A., Patnayak, D. P., Chander, Y., Parsad, M., & Goyal, S. M. (2006). Survival of two avian respiratory viruses on porous and nonporous surfaces. Avian Diseases, 50, 284–287.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Todd, E. C., Greig, J. D., Bartleson, C. A., & Michaels, B. S. (2009). Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 6. Transmission and survival of pathogens in the food processing and preparation environment. Journal of Food Protection, 72, 202–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Tseng, C. C., & Li, C. S. (2007). Inactivation of viruses on surfaces by ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 4, 400–405.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Vega, E., Garland, J., & Pillai, S. D. (2008). Electrostatic forces control nonspecific virus attachment to lettuce. Journal of Food Protection, 71, 522–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. von Rheinbaben, F., Schunemann, S., Gross, T., & Wolff, M. H. (2000). Transmission of viruses via contact in a household setting: experiments using bacteriophage phi X174 as a model virus. Journal of Hospital Infection, 46, 61–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Ward, R. L. (1982). Evidence that microorganisms cause inactivation of viruses in activated-sludge. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 43, 1221–1224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Ward, R. L., Bernstein, D. I., Knowlton, D. R., Sherwood, J. R., Young, E. C., Cusack, T. M., et al. (1991). Prevention of surface-to-human transmission of rotaviruses by treatment with disinfectant spray. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 29, 1991–1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Winther, B., Hayden, F. G., & Hendley, J. O. (2006). Picornavirus infections in children diagnosed by RT-PCR during longitudinal surveillance with weekly sampling: Association with symptomatic illness and effect of season. Journal of Medical Virology, 78, 644–650.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Winther, B., McCue, K., Ashe, K., Rubino, J. R., & Hendley, J. O. (2007). Environmental contamination with rhinovirus and transfer to fingers of healthy individuals by daily life activity. Journal of Medical Virology, 79, 1606–1610.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Wu, H. M., Fornek, M., Schwab, K. J., Chapin, A. R., Gibson, K., Schwab, E., et al. (2005). A norovirus outbreak at a long-term-care facility: The role of environmental surface contamination. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 26, 802–810.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Vasickova
    • 1
    Email author
  • I. Pavlik
    • 1
  • M. Verani
    • 2
  • A. Carducci
    • 2
  1. 1.Veterinary Research InstituteBrnoCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations