Neuronal Network and Awareness Measures of Post-Decision Wagering Behavior in Detecting Masked Emotional Faces
- 166 Downloads
Awareness can be measured by investigating the patterns of associations between discrimination performance (first-order decisions) and confidence judgments (knowledge). In a typical post-decision wagering (PDW) task, participants judge their performance by wagering on each decision made in a detection task. If participants are aware, they wager advantageously by betting high whenever decisions are correct and low for incorrect decisions. Thus, PDW—like other awareness measures with confidence ratings—quantifies if the knowledge upon which they make their decisions is conscious. The present study proposes a new method of assessing the association between advantageous wagering and awareness in the PDW task with a combination of log-linear (LLM) modeling and neural network simulation to reveal the computational patterns that establish this association. We applied the post-decision wagering measure to a backward masking experiment in which participants made first-order decisions about whether or not a masked emotional face was present, and then used imaginary or real monetary stakes to judge the correctness of their initial decisions. The LLM analysis was then used to examine whether advantageous wagering was aware by testing a hypothesis of partial associations between metacognitive judgments and accuracy of first-order decisions. The LLM outcomes were submitted into a feed-forward neural network. The network served as a general approximator that was trained to learn relationships between input wagers and the output of the corresponding log-linear function. The simulation resulted in a simple network architecture that successfully accounted for wagering behavior. This was a feed-forward network unit consisting of one hidden neuron layer with four inputs and one output. In addition, the study indicated no effect of the monetary incentive cues on wagering strategies, although we observed that only low-wager input weights of the neural network considerably contributed to advantageous wagering.
KeywordsAwareness Metacognition Connectionist model Post-decision wagering Log-linear analysis
This work was supported by the National Science Center under grants’ decision DEC-2011/03/B/HS6/01799 to R.S. We thank Tomasz Guszkowski for designing neural computation.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This study was funded by the National Science Center (grant number 2011/03/B/HS6/01799).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 1.Agresti A. An introduction to categorical data analysis (Vol. 423). Wiley-Blackwell. 2007.Google Scholar
- 3.Beale, M. H., Hagan, M. T., & Demuth, H. B. (2015). Neural Network Toolbox™ getting started guide.Google Scholar
- 5.Cleeremans A, Haynes JD. Correlating consciousness: a view from empirical science. Rev Int Philos. 1999:387–420.Google Scholar
- 12.Ekman P, Friesen WV. Pictures of facial affect. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press; 1976.Google Scholar
- 17.Lisetti C L, Rumelhart DE. Facial expression recognition using a neural network. In FLAIRS Conference; 1998. 328–332.Google Scholar
- 19.Lundqvist D, Flykt A, Öhman A. The Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces (KDEF). CD ROM from Department of Clinical Neurosci Psychol Sec Karolinska Inst; 1998. 91–630Google Scholar
- 21.Maniscalco B, Lau H. Signal detection theory analysis of type 1 and type 2 data: meta-d’, response-specific meta-d’, and the unequal variance SDT mode. In S. M. Fleming & C. D. Frith (Eds.), The Cognitive Neuroscience of Metacognition; 2014. 25–66. Springer.Google Scholar
- 25.Peters MA, Lau H. Human observers have optimal introspective access to perceptual processes even for visually masked stimuli. ELife; 2015. 4. doi: 10.7554/eLife.0965
- 36.Timmermans B, Schilbach L, Pasquali A, Cleeremans A. Higher order thoughts in action: consciousness as an unconscious re-description process. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 2012;367(1594):1412–23. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2011.042.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar