Shadow Space Modeling and Task Planning for Collision-free Cooperation of Dual Manipulators for Planar Task

  • Hyun Joong Yoon
  • Seong Youb Chung
  • Myun Joong HwangEmail author
Regular Papers Robot and Applications


Planning the manipulators’ task sequences is necessary for proper execution of specific robotic tasks. With multiple manipulators for cooperative tasks, planning becomes difficult owing to possible collisions between component manipulators. This paper proposes a shadow space approach that utilizes the swept area of a robot during its motion, for collision-free task planning of dual manipulators. A collision can be detected and prevented by computing the intersection of two manipulators’ shadow spaces. Then, a novel genetic algorithm with mutually exclusive chromosomes is proposed to search optimal collision-free task sequences for dual manipulators. For a pragmatic example of placing pemnuts onto the back-chassis of a liquid crystal device (LCD) panel, experiments and simulation show that the proposed method can determine a nearly optimal sequence, which allows two manipulators to move cooperatively without collisions, even though they share a common workspace.


Collision avoidance dual manipulators genetic algorithm task sequence optimization 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    R. Drath and A. Horch, “Industrie 4.0: hit or hype?” IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 5658, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    S. Kock, T. Vittor, B. Matthias, H. Jerregard, M. Kallman, I. Lundberg, R. Mellander, and M. Hedelind, “Robot concept for scalable, flexible assembly automation: a technology study on a harmless dual-armed robot,” Proc. of the IEEE International Symposium on Assembly and Manufacturing, pp. 1–5, May 2011.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    R. Bloss, “Robotics innovations at the 2009.assembly technology expo,” Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 427–430, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    H. M. Do, T. Y. Choi, and J. H. Kyung, “Automation of cell production system for cellular phones using dual-arm robots,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 83, no. 5–8, pp. 1349–1360, Mar. 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    R. L. A. Shauri, K. Saiki, S. Toritani, and K. Nonami, “Sensor integration and fusion for autonomous screwing task by dual-manipulator hand robot,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 41, pp. 1412–1420, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Y. S. Choi, D. H. Kim, S. W. Hwang, H. G. Kim, N. W. Kim, and C. S. Han, “Dual-arm robot motion planning for collision avoidance using B-spline curve,” The International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 835–843, June 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Y. Koga and J.-C. Latombe, “On multi-arm manipulation planning,” Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, vol. 2, pp. 945–952, May 1994.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    S. M. LaValle, Planning Algorithms, Cambridge University Press, 2006.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    A. Brahmi, M. Saad, G. Gauthier, W. Zhu, and J. Ghommam, “Adaptive control of multiple manipulators transporting a rigid object,” International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1779 -1789, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    S. Alatartsev, S. Stellmacher, and O. Frank, “Robotic task sequencing problem: a survey,” Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 279–298, Nov. 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    D. L. Applegate, R. E. Bixby, V. Chvatal, and W. J. Cook, The Traveling Salesman Problem: A Computational Study, Princeton University Press, 2007.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    L. Yang and H. Zhou, “Research on path planning and TSP based on genetic algorithm and Hopfield neural network,” Proc. of the IEEE Computer Science and Service System (CSSS), June 2011. pp. 657–659.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    P. Brunn, “Collision avoidance for two robots sharing a common workspace,” IEE Colloquium on Fast Reconfiguration of Robotic and Automation Resources, pp. 2/1-2/4 1995.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    G. Sanchez and J. C. Latombe, “Using a PRM planner to compare centralized and decoupled planning for multirobot systems,” Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 2112–2119, 2002.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    C. Smith, Y. Karayiannidis, L. Nalpantidis, X. Gratal, P. Qi, D. Dimarogonas, and D. Kragic, “Dual arm manipulation a survey,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 1340–1353, Oct. 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    E. Todt, G. Rausch, and R. Suarez, “Analysis and classification of multiple robot coordination methods,” Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 3158–3163, 2000.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    S. S. Chiddarwar and N. R. Babu, “Conflict free coordinated path planning for multiple robots using a dynamic path modification sequence,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 59, pp. 508–518, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    M. Davoodi, M. Abedin, B. Banyassady, P. Khanteimouri, and A. Mohades, “An optimal algorithm for two robots path planning problem on the grid,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 61, pp. 1406–1414, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    C. Park, “Self-collision detection & avoidance algorithm for a robot manipulator,” International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 139–142, 2015.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    T. Bektas, “The multiple traveling salesman problem: an overview of formulation and solution procedures,” The International Journal of Management Science, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 209–219, June 2006.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    T. Lozano-Perez, “Spatial planning: a configuration space approach,” IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. C-32, no.. 2, pp. 108–120, Feb. 1983.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    J. Barraquand and J.-C. Latombe, “Robot motion planning: a distributed representation approach,” The International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 628–649, Dec. 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Y. Fei, D. Fuqiang, and Z. Xifang, “Collision-free motion planning of dual-arm reconfigurable robots,” Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 351–357, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    J. Canny, The Complexity of Robot Motion Planning, MIT Press, 1988.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    X. Cheng, “On-line collision-free path planning for service and assembly tasks by a two-arm robot,” Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1523–1528, May 1995.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    A. Montano and R. Suarez, “An on-line coordination algorithm for multi-robot systems,” Proc. of the IEEE 18th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA), pp. 1–7, 2013.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    P. A. O’Donnell and T. Lozano-Perez, “Deadlock-free and collision-free coordination of two robot manipulators,” Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 484–489, May 1989.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    D.-H. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, and C.-S, Han, “Collisionfree coordination of two dual-arm robots with assembly precedence constraint,” Proc. of the International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems, pp. 515–520, Oct. 2014.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    M. Gharbi, J. Cortes, and T. Simeon, “A sampling-based path planner for dual-arm manipulation,” Proc. of the IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, pp. 383–388, July 2008.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    L. Biagiotti and C. Mechiorri, Trajectory Planning for Automatic Machines and Robots, Springer, pp. 62–76, 2008.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    H. J. Yoon and S. Y. Chung, “Task sequence optimization for 6-DOF manipulator in press forming process,” Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 704–710, 2017.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICROS, KIEE and Springer 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Automotive EngineeringCatholic University of DaeguGyeongsanKorea
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKorea National University of TransportationChungjuKorea

Personalised recommendations