Advertisement

Design and implementation of a hybrid fuzzy logic controller for a quadrotor VTOL vehicle

  • Bora Erginer
  • Erdinç Altuğ
Regular Papers Control Applications

Abstract

Helicopters have generated considerable interest in both the control community due to their complex dynamics, and in military community because of their advantages over regular aerial vehicles. In this paper, we present the modeling and control of a four rotor vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned air vehicle known as quadrotor aircraft. This model has been generated using Newton-Euler equations. In order to control the helicopter, classical PD (proportional derivative) and Hybrid Fuzzy PD controllers have been designed. Although fuzzy control of various dynamical systems has been presented in literature, application of this technology to quadrotor helicopter control is quite new. A quadrotor helicopter has nonlinear characteristics where classical control methods are not adequate especially when there are time delays, disturbances and nonlinear vehicle dynamics. On the other hand, Fuzzy control is nonlinear and it is thus suitable for nonlinear system control. Matlab Simulink has been used to test, analyze and compare the performance of the controllers in simulations. For the evaluation of the autonomous flight controllers, some experiments were also performed. For this purpose, an experimental test stand has been designed and manufactured. This study showed that although, both of the classical PD and the Fuzzy PD controllers can control the system properly, the Fuzzy PD controllers performed slightly better than the classical PD controllers, and have benefits such as better disturbance rejection, ease of building the controllers.

Keywords

Flight control fuzzy control modelling quadrotor UAV 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    A. Gessow and G. Myers, Aerodynamics of the helicopter, Frederick Ungar Publishing Co, New York, 1967.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    J. G. Leishman, Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics, Cambridge University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    M. J. Hirschberg, The American Helicopter: An Overview of Helicopter Developments in America 1908–1999, 2000.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    P. Castillo, R. Lozano, and A. E. Dzul, Modelling and Control of Mini-flying Machines, Advances in Industrial Control series, ISSN 1430-9491, Springer, 2005.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    H. Y. Chao, Y. C. Cao, and Y. Q. Chen, “Autopilots for small unmanned aerial vehicles: a survey,” International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 8,no. 1, pp. 36–44, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    D. Lee, I. Kaminer, V. Dobrokhodov, and K. Jones, “Autonomous feature following for visual surveillance using a small unmanned aerial vehicle with gimbaled camera system,” International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 957–966, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    D. Han, J. Kim, C. Min, S. Jo, J. Kim, and D. Lee, “Development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system with waypoint tracking and vision-based reconnaissance,” International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1091–1099, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    T. Hamel, R. Mahony, R. Lozano, and J. Ostrowski, “Dynamic modeling and configuration stabilization for an X4-flyer,” Proc. of IFAC 15th Triennial World Congress, Barcelona, Spain, 2002.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    E. Altuğ, J. P. Ostrowski, and C. J. Taylor, “Control of a quadrotor helicopter using dual camera visual feedback,” The International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 329–341, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    D. Suter, T. Hamel, and R. Mahony, “Visual servo control using homography estimation for the stabilization of an X4-flyer,” Proc. of the 41st IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control, pp. 2872–2877, 2002.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    A. Moktari and A. Benallegue, “Dynamic feedback controller of Euler angles and wind parameters estimation for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle,” Proc. of the IEEE Conf. on Rob. and Auto., pp. 2359–2366, 2004.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    J. Dunfied, M. Tarbouchi, and G. Labonte, “Neural network based control of a four rotor helicopter,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Industrial Technology, pp. 1543–1548, 2004.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    M. G. Earl and R. D’Andrea, “Real-time attitude estimation techniques applied to a four rotor helicopter,” Proc. of IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control, pp. 3956–3961, 2004.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    S. Slazar-Cruz, A. Palomino, and R. Lozano, “Trajectory tracking for a four rotor mini-aircraft,” Proc. of the 44th IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control and the European Control Conference, pp. 2505–2510, 2005.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    J. Escareno, S. Salazar-Cruz, and R. Lozano, “Embedded control of a four-rotor UAV,” Proc. of the American Control Conference, pp. 189–204, 2006.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    S. Bouabdallah and R. Siegwart, “Backstepping and sliding-mode techniques applied to an indoor micro quadrotor,” Proc. of the IEEE Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 2247–2252, 2005.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    L. Beji, A. Abichou, and K. M. Zemalache, “Smooth control of an X4 bidirectional rotors flying robot,” 5th Int. Workshop on Robot Motion and Control, pp. 181–186, 2005.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    P. Castillo, A. E. Dzul, and R. Lozano, “Real-time stabilization and tracking of a four-rotor mini rotorcraft,” IEEE Trans. on control systems technology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 510–516, 2004.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    A. Tayebi and S. McGilvray, “Attitude stabilization of a VTOL quadrotor aircraft,” IEEE Trans. on Control Systems Technology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 562–571, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    D. Lee, H. J. Kim, and S. Sastry, “Feedback linearization vs. adaptive sliding mode control for a quadrotor helicopter,” International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 419–428, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    L.-X. Wang, A Course in Fuzzy System and Control, Prentice Hall, 1997.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    C.-C. Lee, “Fuzzy logic in control systems: fuzzy logic controller-part I,” IEEE Trans. on System, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 404–418, 1990.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    L. Reznik, Fuzzy Controllers Handbook, 1997.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    E. H. Fung, Y. Wong, Y. Ma, C. M. Yuen, and W. Wong, “Smart hanger dynamic modeling and fuzzy controller design,” International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 691–700, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    A. Hafaifa, F. Laaouad, and K. Laroussi, “A numerical structural approach to surge detection and isolation in compression systems using fuzzy logic controller,” International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 69–79, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    M. Sugeno, Development of an Intelligent Unmanned Helicopter, at the Fuzzy Modeling and Control, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1999.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    B. Kadmiry and D. Driankov, “Fuzzy control of an autonomous helicopter,” IFSA World Congress, vol. 5, Canada, pp. 2797–2802, 2001.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    C. Cavalcante, J. Cardoso, J. G. Ramos, and O. R. Nerves, “Design and tuning of a helicopter fuzzy controller,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conference on Fuzzy Systems, vol. 3, pp. 1549–1554, 1995.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    N. I. Vitzilaios and N. C. Tsourveloudis, “An experimental test bed for small unmanned helicopters,” Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, vol. 54, pp. 769–794, May 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    R. D. Garcia and K. P. Valavanis, “The implementation of an autonomous helicopter testbed,” Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, vol. 54,Issue 1–3, pp. 423–454, March 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems and The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg  2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ford OtosanIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIstanbul Technical UniversityGümüşsuyu, IstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations