Duplicity at the U.S. EPA

A legacy of contrariness & broken pledges to protect


It has been said that Water is the Planet's most precious resource. The task of protecting and enhancing existing Water resources collectively demands a particular type and range of clarity into situational assessments, and all related determinations; adding a level of heightened comprehension of assigned responsibilities; of actionable solution possibilities, and an unblemished sensitivity to the need for systematic decisional transparency and operational accountability. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA/EPA) is that federal agency entrusted with the pinnacle authority over all U.S. Waters, and Water Quality. Contrariwise, multiple U.S. federal government entities have at least a piece of the Water jurisdiction, authority, and budget quilt. Within a fragmented landscape of political, legislative, and judicial influences, overlapping jurisdictional authorities, and budgets, how well is the USEPA situated to protect the American public from harm, and how well is the EPA protecting Water and Water resources under its mandate? William Ruckelshaus, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's first Administrator had once remarked, “[i]t is not widely understood that while institutions like EPA exist to serve the public, they are also there to serve the political appointees.” Did Ruckelshaus’s mission philosophy and his brand of paired leadership set a precedent for the EPA to become politically expedient, appealing, and convivial with those the Agency regulates? By way of a brief compilation, this treatise examines the intellectual corruption that has checkered the EPA’s history of offering protections to the American people.

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  1. 1.

    Example Only: “A Strategy for Federal Science and Technology to Support Water Availability and Quality in the United States” [A Report], Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources—Subcommittee on Water Availability and Quality, National Science and Technology Council, Executive Office of The President, Washington, D.C., September 2007

  2. 2.

    Example Only: Hopple, J.A; Delzer, G.C; and Kingsbury, J.A; “Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Source Water of Selected Community Water Systems That Use Groundwater—2002–05,” U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report [2009-5200], Reston, VA., 2009 AND “Toward A Sustainable and Secure Water Future: A Leadership Role For the U.S. Geological Survey,” National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2009

  3. 3.

    Trenberth, Kevin E, and Smith, Lesley et al; "Estimates of the Global Water Budget and Its Annual Cycle Using Observational and Model Data," Journal of Hydrometerology (Special Section), Vol. 8, August 2007

  4. 4.

    “Uninteroperability” is defined as that incapability for interdependent and interconnected systems to operate and perform synchronously to achieve objectives, or mission success. Adjacently, “Interoperability” is defined as that capability by which, all operating elements of interdependent and interconnected systems are able to operate and perform synchronously and optimally to achieve objectives, or mission success. Synchronous operations here infers to an operational requirement for all components/sub-systems of interconnected and interdependent systems, to be properly oriented, skillfully aligned, and reliably available - across geographic and organizational boundaries, and for professional disciplines to achieve mission objectives.

  5. 5.

    “Water In A Changing World,” The United Nations World Water Development Report 3, World Water Assessment Programme, The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), London, UK, 2009

  6. 6.


  7. 7.

    “Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability—Summary for Policymakers,” IPCC—Working Group II, Yokohama, Japan, 31 March 2014. [IPCC General Secretariat—C/o WMO, Geneva, Switzerland]

  8. 8.

    Insight Report—Global Risks 2014 (Ninth Edition), World Economic Forum (WEF), Geneva, Switzerland, 2014 [http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalRisks_Report_2014.pdf]

  9. 9.


  10. 10.

    “Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis—Headline Statements from the Summary for Policymakers,” IPCC—WGI Technical Support Unit—C/o University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 30 January 2014 [IPCC General Secretariat—C/o WMO, Geneva, Switzerland]

  11. 11.

    It is the gap between that which is considered to be society’s “need,” and the type and/or range of “actions” that are taken to address that known societal need by seated structures and instruments of governance

  12. 12.

    See Section 2.2 “Corruption as we are likely to experience…”

  13. 13.

    The author positions that sensible Intellectual analysis is foundational to developing virtuous, advantageous, cooperative, efficient, effective and constructive, Public Policy Concepts, Policy Frameworks, Policy Plans, and Orienting all accompanying dialogue regarding Policy Workability, its Adoption and Prospective Deployment for successful governance. Intellectual Corruption in a Policy context therefore, is a distortion or the perversion of processes related to the development of Public Policy, Policy Frameworks, Policy Plans, Policy Adoption and Policy Deployment interfering, and ultimately sabotaging intentions to instantiate ‘ways and means’ for successful governance.

  14. 14.

    “The Collected Works of Henrik Ibsen” [Volume: VIII: The Enemy of the People, with Introductions by William Archer], Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, NY., 1907.

  15. 15.

    Ibid [Act II]

  16. 16.

    Ibid [Act III]

  17. 17.

    Ibid [Act III]

  18. 18.

    “Realism is nothing more and nothing less than the truthful treatment of material.”—Howells, William D; Harper’s New Monthly Magazine [In “Editor’s Study”], Volume 79, Issue 474, November, 1889.

  19. 19.

    Public Sector Governance and Accountability Series, “Performance Accountability and Combating Corruption” [Anwar Shah, Ed], The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 2007

  20. 20.

    An example is being provided—Lipton, Eric and Sack, Kevin; “Fiscal Footnote: Big Senate Gift to Drug Maker,” The New York Times, January 19, 2013 [https://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/20/us/medicare-pricing-delay-is-political-win-for-amgen-drug-maker.html AND “Amgen Gets a Gift From Congress” [Editorial], The Opinion Pages, The New York Times, January 22, 2013 [ https://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/23/opinion/amgen-gets-a-gift-from-congress.html?_r=0

  21. 21.

    “The New Institutional Economics of Corruption,” Lambsdorff, Johann G; Taube, Markus; Schramm, Matthias; Eds., Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), New York, NY, 2004

  22. 22.

    Hobbes, Thomas [Of Malmesbury]; “Leviathan or The Matter, Forme, & Power of a Common-wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civill,” Printed For Andrew Crooke, Green Dragon, London, 1651 AND “Hobbes’s Leviathan” [Reprinted from the Edition of 1651, With An Essay By The Late W.G. Pogson Smith], Clarendon Press, Oxford, GB, 1929

  23. 23.

    Given as examples only: Zywicki, Todd; “The Auto Bailout and the Rule of Law,” National Affairs, Issue 7, Washington, D.C., Spring 2011, AND Goodman, Peter; “U.S. Loan Effort Is Seen as Adding to Housing Woes,” The New York Times, 1 January, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/02/business/economy/02modify.html

  24. 24.

    Lambsdorff, Taube & Schramm, Supra note 21

  25. 25.


  26. 26.

    Spagat, Elliot; “Border Patrol rejects curbs on force,” The Associated Press [AP Exclusive] In News Daily, 5 November, 2013 [http://www.newsdaily.com/us-politics/02943d9657017c3e62aec052ac6e1d6d/ap-exclusive-border-patrol-rejects-curbs-on-force] AND Hunter, Roz; “Border Patrol Probe Confirms Excessive Use of Force,” The Investigative Fund [The Nation Institute], 25 September, 2013 http://www.theinvestigativefund.org/blog/1850/border_patrol_probe_confirms_excessive_use_of_force/

  27. 27.

    Nakamura, David; “Cartagena prostitution scandal is no laughing matter to Secret Service alumni,” The Washington Post, May 2, 2012 http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/cartagena-prostitution-scandal-is-no-laughing-matter-to-secret-service-alumni/2012/05/02/gIQAmJKmwT_story.html AND “Secret Service examining prostitute interviews,” Associated Press By USA Today, 3 May, 2012 http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/washington/story/2012-05-01/secret-service-prostitute-interviews/54671924/1 AND “US Secret Service agents’ alleged scandals since 2004 revealed

    List claims involvement with prostitutes, sexual assault, leaking information and improper use of weapons,” The Associated Press Via The Guardian, 15 June 2012 http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/jun/15/us-secret-service-scandals-revealed

  28. 28.

    Department of Homeland Security (DHS) employs 216,000 people, and is the third largest Cabinet Department in the United States Government [See: http://www.whitehouse.gov/our-government/executive-branch]

  29. 29.

    “Investigation into Allegations of Misconduct by the Former Acting and Deputy Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security,” United States Senate Subcommittee on Financial and Contracting Oversight—Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs [Senator Claire McCaskill, Chairman & Ron Johnson, Ranking Member], Washington, D.C., 24 April, 2014

  30. 30.

    Bennett, Brian; “Homeland Security watchdog is transferred,” The Los Angeles Times, December 17, 2013 [http://articles.latimes.com/2013/dec/17/news/la-pn-homeland-security-watchdog-20131217]

  31. 31.

    The Senate Subcommittee discovered in their investigation that there was a widespread employee belief (Departmentally) to this effect

  32. 32.

    “Ineffective Oversight of Purchase Cards Results in Inappropriate Purchases at EPA” [Report No. 14-P-0128], Office of the Inspector General, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., March 4, 2014 AND “EPA Compliance With Retention Incentive Regulations and Policies” [Report No. 14-P-0245], Office of the Inspector General, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., May 2, 2014

  33. 33.

    “Our Mission and What We Do,” US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/whatwedo.html]

  34. 34.

    Example only: Kettl, Donald F; “Sharing Power: Public Governance and Private Markets,” The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C., 1993 and Gori, Gio B and Luik, John C; “Passive Smoke: The EPA’s Betrayal of Science and Policy,” Frasier Institute, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, 1999

  35. 35.


  36. 36.

    Study of Fish

  37. 37.

    Safe Drinking Water Act, Public Law (Pub. L.) No. 93-523, §§ 1401-1450, 88 Stat. 1660-63, 1974

  38. 38.

    To be detailed within

  39. 39.

    Gugliotta, Guy and Pianin, Eric, Supra note 14

  40. 40.

    “Scientific Integrity in Policymaking—An Investigation into the Bush Administration’s Misuse of Science,” Report by Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, MA, March 2004. http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/scientific_integrity/rsi_final_fullreport_1.pdf

  41. 41.

    EPA Web Resource: “Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)” [http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/rulesregs/sdwa/index.cfm]

  42. 42.

    “Basic Information about Regulated Drinking Water Contaminants and Indicators,” United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 29 May, 2013 http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/

  43. 43.

    “Myth Versus Fact About Chemicals in Commerce,” Society of Chemical Manufacturers and Affiliates (SOCMA), Washington, D.C., 2014. http://www.socma.com/GovernmentRelations/index.cfm?subSec=26&articleID=3259

  44. 44.

    Database Counter at http://www.cas.org/

  45. 45.


  46. 46.

    “Toxics Release Inventory—National Analysis Overview,” United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., February 2014.

  47. 47.

    “TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory,” US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Public Fact Sheet, Washington, D.C., 2014. [http://www.epa.gov/oppt/existingchemicals/pubs/tscainventory/basic.html] and “What Does It Mean for a Chemical To Be on the TSCA Inventory?,” US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Public Fact Sheet, Washington, D.C., 2014. [http://www.epa.gov/oppt/existingchemicals/pubs/tscainventory/basic.html#what]

  48. 48.

    “EPA to Work with Drinking Water Systems to Monitor Unregulated Contaminants,” Cathy Milbourn [milbourn.cathy@epa.gov], Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., May 2012 [http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/d0cf6618525a9efb85257359003fb69d/9725165167f237b1852579f1007176e7!OpenDocument]

  49. 49.

    Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Section 8(e) Notices, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. [http://www.epa.gov/oppt/tsca8e/]

  50. 50.

    What can TSCA 8(e) Submitters Claim as “Confidential Business Information” (CBI)?, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., [http://www.epa.gov/oppt/tsca8e/pubs/confidentialbusinessinformation.html]

  51. 51.

    “EPA Removes Confidentiality Claims on Studies of Chemicals Submitted under TSCA / Action part of ongoing commitment to transparency,” Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Dale Kemery (kemery.dale@epa.gov), Washington, D.C., February, 2011.

  52. 52.

    “Regulating Public Water Systems and Contaminants Under the Safe Drinking Water Act,” United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 11 September, 2013 http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/rulesregs/regulatingcontaminants/basicinformation.cfm

  53. 53.


  54. 54.

    Reference Only: “Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986” (Proposition 65), State of California, http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65.html

  55. 55.

    “Lead poisoning,” MedlinePlus—The Medical Encyclopedia, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002473.htm

  56. 56.

    See Figure: 2

  57. 57.

    Illinois, Kentucky Louisiana and Maine are among the few States that require the posting of Lead Exposure Risk warnings (Illinois: Lead Poisoning Prevention Act [Ill. Rev. Stat. Ch. 410 para. 45/1 to 45/17; 45/6.3], 1996 & Supp. 2004; Kentucky: Lead-Based Paint [KY. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 217.801], 1991; Louisiana: Lead Paint Poisoning Prevention and Control Act [LA. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 40:1299:26 to 40:1299:29], 1992 & West Supp. 2004; Maine: Lead Poisoning Control Act [ME. Rev. Stat. Ann. Title. 22, Chapter 252 §§ 1314 to 1327], West 1992 and Supp. 2003)

  58. 58.

    See Figure 2

  59. 59.

    “Public Confidence, Down The Drain: The Federal Role in Ensuring Safe Drinking Water in the District of Columbia,” Hearing before the Committee on Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives, 108th Congress (2nd Session), 5 March, 2004 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-108hhrg94596/html/CHRG-108hhrg94596.htm

  60. 60.

    Supplemental Only: Edwards, Marc; “Fetal Death and Reduced Birth Rates Associated with Exposure to Lead-Contaminated Drinking Water,” Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 48, No, 1, 2014

  61. 61.

    Mathews & Spencer, Supra Note I [Article IV, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution guarantees, “Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states”]

  62. 62.

    “Equal Protection Clause: An Overview,” Cornell University Law School, Legal Information Institute [See: http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/equal_protection]

  63. 63.

    “Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in U.S. Streams 1999–2000: A National Reconnaissance,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 36, No. 6, March 15, 2002

  64. 64.

    For Background Study Only: Howell, William G and Lewis, David E; “Agencies by Presidential Design,” The Journal of Politics, Vol. 64, No. 4, November 2002 AND Hernon, Peter; “The Government Performance and Results Act” [Discussion Forum], Government Information Quarterly, Volume 15, Number 2, 1998 AND Schick, Allen; “The Battle of the Budget” (Congress against the President), Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1975

  65. 65.

    “Walmart Joins Nationwide SMARxT DISPOSAL Partnership,” U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Region, Portland, OR., 21 April, 2011 http://www.fws.gov/pacific/news/news.cfm?id=2144374757 And “SMARxT Disposal Program—Drug-Free Action Alliance” [https://www.drugfreeactionalliance.org/files/downloadables/materials-general-public/presentations-activities/smarxt-disposal/SMARxTDisposalpowerpointpresentation.ppt ]

  66. 66.

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service manages a 95-million-acre National Wildlife Refuge System comprising of 547 national wildlife refuges, thousands of small wetlands and special management areas nationwide. The USFWS/FWS also operates 69 national fish hatcheries, 64 fishery resources offices, and 81 ecological services field stations

  67. 67.

    Info Page: http://www.northplainsgcd.org/services/41-smarxt-disposal.html AND a State Branch/Franchise at http://mnsmartdisposal.com/

  68. 68.

    “Medicines Recommended for Disposal By Flushing,” The Food & Drug Administration, Division of Drug Information, Silver Spring, MD. [Revised 11/30/2012] [http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/EnsuringSafeUseofMedicine/SafeDisposalofMedicines/ucm186187.htm#MEDICINES]

  69. 69.

    1) “Medicine Disposal Options for In­home Hospice Nurses and Hospice Houses,” Environmental Fact Sheet [WD-DWGB-22-29], New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Concord, NH. 2010 [http://des.nh.gov/organization/commissioner/pip/factsheets/dwgb/documents/dwgb-22-29.pdf] 2) “HPNA Recommendations for Safe Drug Disposal in the Home Setting,” Hospital and Palliative Nurses Association, Pittsburgh, PA, (Accessed—January 2013) [http://www.hpna.org/DisplayPage.aspx?Title=Drug%20Disposal%20Guidelines] AND Supplemental Reading: 3) McCullagh, M.C; Schim, S; and Ortner P; “Drug disposal among hospice home care nurses: a pilot study of current practice and attitudes,” Journal of Pain Symptom Management, Volume 43, Issue 2, February, 2012

  70. 70.

    “Medication Disposal: Questions and Answers,” The Food & Drug Administration, Division of Drug Information, Silver Spring, MD. 30 August, 2013 http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/EnsuringSafeUseofMedicine/SafeDisposalofMedicines/ucm186188.htm AND “Medicines Recommended for Disposal By Flushing,” The Food & Drug Administration, Division of Drug Information, Silver Spring, MD. [Revised 11/2013] [http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/EnsuringSafeUseofMedicine/SafeDisposalofMedicines/ucm186187.htm#MEDICINES]

  71. 71.

    “In general, knowledge about the toxicity of mixtures of compounds is limited.... Data enabling a realistic assessment for metabolites and transformation products are missing. Furthermore, up to now, risk assessments have been undertaken for single substances only and not for mixtures.”—Kummerer, Klaus; “The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment due to human use—present knowledge and future challenges,” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 90, 2009 AND “Based on the analysis of over 160 papers, it was found that ..drugs have caused changes in the population of microbes that could be potentially hazardous to human health. This human health hazard could have a global range, and administrative activities have been ineffective in risk reduction.”—Baran, Wojciech; Adamek, Ewa; Ziemiańska, Justyna; Sobczak, Andrzej; “Effects of the presence of sulfonamides in the environment and their influence on human health,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 196, 2011

  72. 72.


  73. 73.

    See FDA website: http://www.fda.gov/

  74. 74.

    Richardson, Mervyn L and Bowron, Judith M; "The fate of pharmaceutical chemicals in the aquatic environment," [18]

  75. 75.

    Codified Controlled Substances Act (CSA) References [Schedule I–V], Drug Enforcement Administration—Office of Diversion Control, U.S. Department of Justice. [http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/21cfr/cfr/1308/1308_11.htm]

  76. 76.

    Public Law 111-273, 124 Stat. 2858 “Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010.” http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drug_disposal/non_registrant/s_3397.pdf

  77. 77.

    Federal Register Volume 77, Number 246, December 21, 2012. [http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/fed_regs/rules/2012/fr1221_8.htm]

  78. 78.

    “Nitrates and Nitrites in Drinking Water,” California Department of Public Health, Sacramento, CA., Last Update: May 21, 2014 [http://www.cdph.ca.gov/certlic/drinkingwater/Pages/Nitrate.aspx]

  79. 79.

    Enick OV, Moore MM. “Assessing the assessments: pharmaceuticals in the environment,” [21].

  80. 80.

    Environmental Assessment staff at Food and Drug Administration—Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

  81. 81.

    “How to Dispose of Unused Medicines” [Consumer Health Information], Food and Drug Administration—Division of Drug Information, Silver Spring, MD., April, 2011 [http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/UnderstandingOver-the-CounterMedicines/ucm107163.pdf]

  82. 82.


  83. 83.

    Kümmerer, Klaus; “The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment due to human use—present knowledge and future challenges,” Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 90, Issue 8, Elsevier, June 2009 [Adjacently, please see: Footnote # 70]

  84. 84.

    Waste by-product of coal burning fossil-fuel power plant

  85. 85.

    TVA spokesman Gil Francis was quoted stating that the mixture of ash and water contained no hazardous materials.—“Homes destroyed, evacuated after wall fails at TVA plant,” WATE.COM [WATE Staff and additional contribution by News Reporter Hana Kim], Knoxville, TN., 22 December, 2008. Link: http://www.wate.com/global/story.asp?s=9563205

  86. 86.

    See analyzed contents of Coal Ash in the next paragraph

  87. 87.

    “Review of The Kingston Fossil Plant Ash Spill Root Cause Study and Observations About Ash Management.” Tennessee Valley Authority—Office of the Inspector General [Richard W. Moore] Inspection Report [2008-12283-02], Knoxville, TN, July 23, 2009

  88. 88.


  89. 89.

    “Review of TVA’s Environmental Performance Results,” Final Report—Inspection 2007-11402, Office of the Inspector General [Richard W. Moore—Signatory], Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, TN, 03 August, 2010

  90. 90.

    Solid Waste Disposal Act, Public Law (Pub.L.) No. 96-482, 94 Stat. 2334, 1980

  91. 91.

    So named after Fmr. Representative Tom Bevill of Alabama

  92. 92.

    U.S. Code, Title 42—The Public Health and Welfare, Chapter 82—Solid Waste Disposal, Sub-Chapter III—Hazardous Waste Management; Sec. 6921—Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste [42 U.S.C. §§ 6921(b)(3)(A), (c)6982(n)]

  93. 93.

    134,699,739 Short Tons of Coal Combustion Waste is generated each year (2009) according the American Coal Ash Association [This translates to 122,199,603.221 Metric Tons—World Coal Institute]

  94. 94.

    The EPA has identified 240 Electric Utility facilities that have 676 surface impoundments and similar Coal Combustion Waste Management Units in the U.S. that handle and store Coal Combustion Residuals, as did the TVA Kingston plant. [Information Request Responses from Electric Utilities—Responses From Electric Utilities to EPA Information Request Letter, http://www.epa.gov/waste/nonhaz/industrial/special/fossil/surveys/index.htm

  95. 95.

    Browner C. [EPA Administrator, Pre-Determination Notice - Docket# F-2000-FF2F-FFFFF] [24] (emphasis in text - not in original)

  96. 96.

    Case# 1:12-cv-00523-RBW Before United States District Court For The District of Columbia, Appalachian Voices, et al., V. GINA McCARTHY, in her official capacity as Administrator, United States Environmental Protection Agency, and UTILITY SOLID WASTE ACTIVITIES GROUP, and NATIONAL MINING ASSOCIATION; Case# 1:12-cv-00585-RBW, HEADWATERS RESOURCES, INC. V. GINA McCARTHY, in her official capacity as Administrator, United States Environmental Protection Agency; Case# 1:12-cv-00629-RBW, BORAL MATERIAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC. V. GINA McCARTHY, in her official capacity as Administrator, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Consent Decree—Filed 29 January, 2014, Hon. Reggie B. Walton—US District Court (Presiding)

  97. 97.

    “EPA Evaluation Finds Use of Coal Ash in Concrete and Wallboard Appropriate,” Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 7 February, 2014 http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/0/6A5375FF509189A185257C7800562D51

  98. 98.

    Monthly monitoring for 34 months

  99. 99.

    Cook AM, Fritz SJ. “Environmental impacts of acid leachate derived from coal-storage piles upon groundwater,” [25]

  100. 100.

    EPA Mission, Supra Note 34

  101. 101.


  102. 102.

    “Coal Combustion Products: Not a Hazardous Waste,” Coal Ash Fact Sheet #2 [FS #2], American Coal Ash Association Educational Foundation, Aurora, CO., 10 March 2009 http://www.coalashfacts.org/documents/CCP%20Fact%20Sheet%202%20-%20Not%20a%20Hazardous%20Waste_FINAL.pdf

  103. 103.

    Schaeffer, Eric; Evans, Lisa and Widawsky, Lisa; “Coming Clean: What the EPA Knows About the Dangers of Coal Ash—A Summary of the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s 2007 Human and Ecological Risk Assessment of Coal Combustion Wastes” [Report], The Environmental Integrity Project and Earthjustice Washington D.C., and Oakland, CA., May 2009 [Eric Schaeffer was the Fmr. Director of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Regulatory Enforcement. He resigned in 2002 after being frustrated by the Bush Administration’s efforts to weaken Environmental laws.] AND Human and Ecological Risk Assessment of Coal Combustion Wastes [Regulation Identifier Number (RIN) 2050-AE81], U.S. Environmental Protection Agency—Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery, Washington, D.C., 10 April, 2010 [Originally released only as part of a Notice of Data Availability, 6 August, 2007 and updated since]

  104. 104.

    Letter to EPA Administrator—Lisa Jackson, From State of Tennessee—Department of Environment and Conservation Commissioner [Paul L. Sloan, Dep. Commissioner—Signatory], Nashville, TN, November 19, 2010 [Re: Docket Number: EPA-HQ-RCRA-2009-0640 Proposed Rulemaking—Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System; identification and Listing of Special Wastes; Regulation of Coal Combustion Residuals from Electric Utilities]

  105. 105.

    WIAT—CBS 42, Birmingham, AL., Report on Coal Ash Disposal—Arrowhead Landfill, Perry County, Alabama, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B8uoHQyEGLY Additionally, see: “Toxic Coal Ash Coming to Alabama Landfill,” Beasley Allen, Feb 21, 2012 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5VtURxlj3M Also, “Coal Ash: 130 Million Tons of Waste,” CBS—60 min, 4 October 2009, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/coal-ash-130-million-tons-of-waste-01-10-2009/

  106. 106.

    See Footnote #105

  107. 107.

    Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 118, Proposed Rules 35131, Monday, June 21, 2010.

  108. 108.

    Ibid (emphasis not in original)

  109. 109.

    See Figure 7

  110. 110.

    Lisenby, Donna; “Duke Energy Coal Ash Spill Pollutes River and Threatens Drinking Water,” EcoWatch, February 4, 2014 http://ecowatch.com/2014/02/04/duke-energy-coal-ash-spill/ AND “Officials: Unsafe levels of arsenic from Duke Energy coal ash dump pouring into river,” Associated Press Via CBS News, 18 February, 2014, New York, NY. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/officials-unsafe-levels-of-arsenic-from-duke-energy-coal-ash-dump-pouring-into-river/ AND Henderson, Bruce; “Duke Energy plant reports coal-ash spill,” Charlotte Observer, Charlotte, NC, 4 February 2014, http://www.charlotteobserver.com/2014/02/03/4661193/duke-energy-plant-reports-coal.html

  111. 111.

    Certified “Notice of Violation” Letter to: John Velte, Environmental Manager, Duke Energy, From Thomas A. Reeder, Director—Water Quality Programs, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources Division of Water Resources, Raleigh, NC., 20 March, 2014 [CERTIFIED MAIL 70101060 0000 3059 5977] http://portal.ncdenr.org/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=eaef39b7-10ba-4e8b-b5c1-beafde0dd9d0&groupId=14

  112. 112.

    According to the World Coal Association Website. Accessed on May 18, 2014 [http://www.worldcoal.org/coal/uses-of-coal/coal-combustion-products/]

  113. 113.

    EPA Evaluation Finds Use of Coal Ash in Concrete and Wallboard Appropriate, Supra, Footnote # 98

  114. 114.


  115. 115.

    “Whitman Details Ongoing Agency Efforts to Monitor Disaster Sites, Contribute to Cleanup Efforts,” Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., September 18, 2001 http://web.archive.org/web/20021021022514/http://www.epa.gov/wtc/stories/headline_091801.htm

  116. 116.

    “EPA’s Response to the World Trade Center Collapse: Challenges, Successes, and Areas for Improvement” [Report No. 2003-P-00012], August 21, 2003, Office of the Inspector General [Nikki L. Tinsley], Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 21 August 2003,

  117. 117.

    Solan, Samara and Wallenstein, Sylvan et al.; “Cancer Incidence in World Trade Center Rescue and Recovery Workers, 2001–2008,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 121, Number 6, June 2013 AND “Cancer-Incidence Rates Higher Than Expected Among World Trade Center Rescue and Recovery Workers,” World Trade Center Health Program—Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY., 23 April, 2013 http://www.mountsinai.org/patient-care/service-areas/occupational-health/news/cancer-incidence-rates-higher-than-expected-among-world-trade-center-rescue-and-recovery-workers And also: Hartocollis, Anemona; “9/11 Fund to Cover 50 Cancers,” The New York Times, September 10, 2012 http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/10/ground-zero-cancers-to-be-eligible-for-compensation/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0

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    Miller, Norman; “Environmental Politics: Interest Groups, The Media, and The Making of Policy,” Supra, Note [11]

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    Ibid. Additionally, see [9] AND Eilperin, Juliet; “EPA to decline regulating chemical in water-Report shows it won’t set standard for perchlorates,” Washington Post/Boston Globe, 22 September, 2008 http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2008/09/22/epa_to_decline_regulating_chemical_in_water/

  120. 120.

    “Regulatory Impact Analysis For EPA’s Proposed RCRA Regulation Of Coal Combustion Residues (CCR) Generated by the Electric Utility Industry,” US Environmental Protection Agency—Office of Resource Conservation & Recovery (ORCR), Washington D.C., 30 April, 2010.

  121. 121.

    Emphasis not in original

  122. 122.

    Letter to EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson from Committee on Oversight and Government Reform [Henry A. Waxman—Chair], United States House of Representatives, Washington, D.C., 9 April, 2008 [http://oversight-archive.waxman.house.gov/documents/20080409103610.pdf]

  123. 123.

    The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996—Strengthening Protection for America’s Drinking Water. U.S. EPA http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/guidance/sdwa/theme.cfm

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    “Affordability Criteria for Small Drinking Water Systems” [EPA-SAB-EEAC-03-004], Report by Environmental Protection Agency’s—Environmental Economics Advisory Committee of the Science Advisory Board, Washington, D.C., 30 December, 2002.

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    “Recommendations to U.S. EPA on National Small Systems Affordability Criteria,” Work Group on the National Small Systems Affordability Criteria—National Drinking Water Advisory Council [Designated EPA Official—Amit Kapadia, U.S. EPA—OGWDW/SRMD/TAB], Washington, D.C., July 2003.

  126. 126.

    Not merely a cobbling together of ill-suited entities by fiat

  127. 127.

    Letter to EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson, Supra, Footnote #123

  128. 128.

    Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in U.S. Streams 1999–2000: A National Reconnaissance,” Supra, Footnote #64

  129. 129.

    Supplemental: Barnes, K.K., Kolpin, D.W., Meyer, M.T., Thurman, E.M., Furlong, E.T., Zaugg, S.D., and Barber, L.B., “Water-Quality Data for Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in U.S. Streams: 1999–2000,” [USGS Open-File Report 02–94], U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - U.S. Department of the Interior, 2002 [http://toxics.usgs.gov/pubs/OFR-02-94/index.html] AND Barnes, Kimberlee and Kolpin, Dana et. al., “Studies Examine Contaminants: Pharmaceuticals, Hormones and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in Ground Water Resource,” U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA., June 2001. [http://toxics.usgs.gov/pubs/contaminant_studies_article.pdf]

  130. 130.

    The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996, Supra, Footnote #124

  131. 131.

    A congressional legislative criteria

  132. 132.

    Emphasis not in the original

  133. 133.

    Letter to EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson, Supra, Note lxxxiii

  134. 134.

    “Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)—The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are enforceable standards.” Source: “National Primary Drinking Water Regulations,” U.S. EPA: http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/index.cfm

  135. 135.

    See Agee, James L; Supra, [32]

  136. 136.

    “Small Drinking Water Systems Variances—Revision of Existing National-Level Affordability Methodology and Methodology To Identify Variance Technologies That Are Protective of Public Health,” Federal Register Notices 10671, Environmental Protection Agency [EPA-HQ-OW-2005-0005; FRL-8035-7], Vol. 71, No. 41, 2 March, 2006 [http://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2006/03/02/06-1917/small-drinking-water-systems-variances-revision-of-existing-national-level-affordability-methodology] Emphasis not in the original

  137. 137.

    See Section 3, Systemic unreliability in drinking water protections—corruption of functionaries & the intellect

  138. 138.

    “The Precautionary Principle and International Law. The Challenge of Implementation” (International Environmental Law & Policy Series, Vol. 31) [David Freestone & Ellen Hey, Eds.], Kulwer Law International, The Hague, Netherlands, 1996

  139. 139.

    See Section 3.3

  140. 140.

    “Perchlorate in Drinking Water,” California Department of Public Health, Sacramento, CA., 26 February 2014 http://www.cdph.ca.gov/certlic/drinkingwater/Pages/Perchlorate.aspx

  141. 141.

    “Current Regulatory Limit: Perchlorate” [2014 Standards & Guidelines for Contaminants in Massachusetts Drinking Water], Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection—Office of Research and Standards, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Boston, MA., 2014 http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/massdep/water/drinking/standards/standards-and-guidelines-for-drinking-water-contaminants.html [http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/massdep/water/drinking/standards/perchlorate.html]

  142. 142.

    The EPA announced its decision in 2011 (76 FR 7762-7767), to regulate perchlorate under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), no later than February 2013. “Perchlorate Approaches for Deriving Maximum Contaminant Level Goals for Drinking Water,” USEPA [EPA Designated Federal Officer (DFO): Thomas Carpenter/202-564-4885/carpenter.thomas@epa.gov], Washington, D.C., May 23, 2014 http://yosemite.epa.gov/sab/sabproduct.nsf/d21b76bff879fa0a8525735a00766807/d3bb75d4297ca4698525794300522ace!OpenDocument

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    “William D. Ruckelshaus: Oral History Interview” [Interview conducted by Dr. Michael Gorn—EPA History Office, In SESSION 2: The Second Term (May 1983–January 1985), ‘On Agency Mood’] Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., January 1993 http://www2.epa.gov/aboutepa/william-d-ruckelshaus-oral-history-interview

  144. 144.

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Correspondence to Robert Mathews.

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Views expressed in this monograph is solely that of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the University of Hawai’i, the Office of Scientific Inquiry and Applications (OSIA), or the United States Government.

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Mathews, R. Duplicity at the U.S. EPA. Health Technol. 4, 113–133 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12553-014-0087-6

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  • EPA
  • Water
  • Water scarcity
  • Water security
  • Water strategy
  • Water pollution
  • Coal ash
  • Corruption
  • National security
  • Health
  • Environmental pollution
  • TVA
  • Duke energy
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Medicines in water
  • Environmental Protection Agency
  • Climate change
  • Toxic Substances Control Act
  • Lead (Pb)
  • Interoperability
  • Uninteroperability