Duplicity at the U.S. EPA
- 122 Downloads
It has been said that Water is the Planet's most precious resource. The task of protecting and enhancing existing Water resources collectively demands a particular type and range of clarity into situational assessments, and all related determinations; adding a level of heightened comprehension of assigned responsibilities; of actionable solution possibilities, and an unblemished sensitivity to the need for systematic decisional transparency and operational accountability. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA/EPA) is that federal agency entrusted with the pinnacle authority over all U.S. Waters, and Water Quality. Contrariwise, multiple U.S. federal government entities have at least a piece of the Water jurisdiction, authority, and budget quilt. Within a fragmented landscape of political, legislative, and judicial influences, overlapping jurisdictional authorities, and budgets, how well is the USEPA situated to protect the American public from harm, and how well is the EPA protecting Water and Water resources under its mandate? William Ruckelshaus, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's first Administrator had once remarked, “[i]t is not widely understood that while institutions like EPA exist to serve the public, they are also there to serve the political appointees.” Did Ruckelshaus’s mission philosophy and his brand of paired leadership set a precedent for the EPA to become politically expedient, appealing, and convivial with those the Agency regulates? By way of a brief compilation, this treatise examines the intellectual corruption that has checkered the EPA’s history of offering protections to the American people.
KeywordsUSEPA EPA Water Water scarcity Water security Water strategy Water pollution Coal ash Corruption National security Health Environmental pollution TVA Duke energy Pharmaceuticals Medicines in water Environmental Protection Agency Climate change Toxic Substances Control Act Lead (Pb) Interoperability Uninteroperability
- 1.Catley-Carlson M. Water, water everywhere…. Nature. 2011;473(7345):27.Google Scholar
- 2.Mathews R, Spencer C. National Security Strategy for U.S. Water. In: Uninteroperability: Problems Perpetuated By Functional Disconnection. IEEE – Engineering In Medicine & Biology [Special Issue], vol. 27(6); 2008.Google Scholar
- 3.Addams L, Boccaletti G, Kerlin M, Stuchtey M. Charting Our Water Future—Economic frameworks to inform decision-making. [The 2030 Water Resources Group]. Washington, D.C.: McKinsey & Company and IFC; 2009.Google Scholar
- 4.Folger P, Cody BA, Carter NT. Drought in the United States: causes and issues for Congress. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service; 2013.Google Scholar
- 5.Shah A, Schacter M. Combating Corruption: Look before You Leap. Finance and Development (International Monetary Fund), Vol. 41, No. 4, 2004.Google Scholar
- 6.Gambetta D. Corruption: an analytical map. In: Kotkin S, Sajo A, editors. Political corruption in transition: a skeptic’s handbook. Budapest: CEU Press; 2002.Google Scholar
- 7.Greif A, Milgrom P, Weingast BR. Coordination, commitment, and enforcement: the case of the merchant guild. J Polit Econ. 1994;102(4), University of Chicago, Chicago, IL., [Emphasis (Italics) is by author]Google Scholar
- 8.Clifton E. Double Agent’s Obamacare Sabotage. (New documents reveal a drug lobby’s president posed as the Affordable Care Act’s (ACA) savior—then pumped cash to ALEC in an effort to kill it.). The Investigative Fund (Politics & Government), 8 April, 2014 http://www.theinvestigativefund.org/investigations/politicsandgovernment/1951/double_agent%E2%80%99s_obamacare_sabotage/.
- 9.Caiazzo F, Ashok A, Waitz IA, Yim SHL, Barrett SRH. Air pollution and early deaths in the United States. Part I: quantifying the impact of major sectors in 2005. Atmos Environ. 2013;79:198–208.Google Scholar
- 10.Gugliotta G, Pianin E. EPA Withholds Air Pollution Analysis; Senate Plan Found More Effective, Slightly More Costly Than Bush Proposal. The Washington Post, Section A03, 2003.Google Scholar
- 11.Miller N. Environmental politics: interest groups, the media, and the making of policy. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers/CRC Press LLC; 2002.Google Scholar
- 12.Mathews R. Unreliability of Safe Drinking Water Act, the EPA & A Protecting/Harming Dialectic. IEEE Reliability Society – Letters in Reliability/Annual Technical Report, March 2011 [http://rs.ieee.org/images/files/Publications/2010/2010-01.pdf].
- 13.McCartney R. Drinking water debacle deals a blow to CDC and EPA. Washington Post, 4 December 2010, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/story/2009/01/27/ST2009012700722.html.
- 14.Donn J, Mendoza M, Pritchard J. Health facilities flush estimated 250Mil pounds of drugs a year. USA Today Online, September 14, 2008 [http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/health/2008-09-14-drugs-flush-water_N.htm].
- 15.Hendricks R, Pool EJ. The effectiveness of sewage treatment processes to remove faecal pathogens and antibiotic residues. J Environ Sci Health, Part A: Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2012;47(2):289–97.Google Scholar
- 16.Stackelberg PE et al. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant. Sci Total Environ. 2004;329(1–3):99–113.Google Scholar
- 17.Alvarez DA et al. Comparison of a novel passive sampler to standard water column sampling for organic contaminants associated with wastewater effluents entering a New Jersey stream. Chemosphere. 2005;61(5):610–22.Google Scholar
- 18.Richardson ML, Bowron JM. The fate of pharmaceutical chemicals in the aquatic environment. J Pharmacol. 1985;37:1–12.Google Scholar
- 19.Soulides DA, Pinck LA, Allison FE. Antibiotics in soils: V. Stability and release of soil adsorbed antibiotics. Soil Sci. 1962;94(4):239–44.Google Scholar
- 20.Lee WY, Arnold CR. Chronic toxicity of ocean-dumped pharmaceutical wastes to the marine amphipod Amphithoe-Valida. Mar Pollut Bull. 1983;14(4):150–3.Google Scholar
- 21.Enick OV, Moore MM. Assessing the assessments: pharmaceuticals in the environment. Environ Impact Assess Rev. 2007;27(8):730–54.Google Scholar
- 22.Hendrickson N, Amant KST, Hawk W. The Rowman & Littlefield handbook for critical thinking. In: Fallacies of weak induction (chapter 15). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc; 2008.Google Scholar
- 23.Ray AA. (Sr. VP., TVA - Office of Environment and Research), Tennessee Valley Authority Regulatory Submittal for Kingston Ash Recovery Project: “Kingston Fly Ash Recovery Project Non-Time Critical Action Scope and EE/CA Work Plan for Public Review;” Before the U.S. EPA [Craig Zeller - EPA Remedial Project Manager], Knoxville, TN, 2009.Google Scholar
- 24.Browner C. [EPA Administrator, Pre-Determination Notice - Docket# F-2000-FF2F-FFFFF] Regulatory Determination on Wastes From Combustion of Fossil Rules (Under Subtitle C of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)), EPA, Washington, D.C.; 2000.Google Scholar
- 25.Cook AM, Fritz SJ. Environmental impacts of acid leachate derived from coal-storage piles upon groundwater. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2002;135(1–4):371–88.Google Scholar
- 26.Colledge MA. Health Consultation on Groundwater Plume. Town of Pines, Porter County, Indiana [Report], Office of Regional Operations (Region 5), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA June 14, 2002 http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/hac/pha/pha.asp?docid=891&pg=1#recom.
- 27.Lacey A. EPA Acknowledges Underestimate Of Coal Ash Waste Disposal Risks. InsideEPA (Daily News)/ Inside Washington Publishers, Arlington, VA., December 12, 2007 [http://insideepa.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1193026&catid=60&Itemid=95%22].
- 28.Manerikar RS, Apte AA, Ghole VS. In vitro genotoxicity of fly ash leachate in earthworm coelomocytes. Toxicol Environ Chem. 2008;90(2):293–300 [First published on: 31 July 2007].Google Scholar
- 29.Chakraborty R, Mukherjee A. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf (EES). 2009;72, Elsevier.Google Scholar
- 30.Laura R, Vengosh A, et al. Environmental impacts of the coal ash spill in Kingston, Tennessee: an 18-month survey. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44(24):9272–8.Google Scholar
- 31.Coleman-Adebayo M. A whistleblower’s triumph over corruption and retaliation at the EPA. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books/Chicago Review Press; 2011.Google Scholar
- 32.Agee JL. Protecting America’s Drinking Water: Our Responsibilities Under the Safe Drinking Water Act. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Journal, March, 1975 [http://www2.epa.gov/aboutepa/protecting-americas-drinking-water-our-responsibilities-under-safe-drinking-water-act].
- 33.Tiemann M. [Specialist in Environmental Policy, Resources, Science, and Industry Division]; “Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA): Selected Regulatory and Legislative Issues,” Congressional Research Service – Report RL34201, Washington, D.C.; 2007.Google Scholar
- 34.Dorato MA, Engelhardt JA. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level in drug safety evaluations: use, issues, and definition(s). Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2005;42(3):265–74.Google Scholar