Tailoring software process capability/maturity models for the health domain
Web-based asynchronous store-and-forward telemedicine systems for diagnostic purposes, which enable the consultation of (one or more) distant health care professional(s) by a locally present health care professional concerning a patient’s diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve healthcare services. Yet, developing high-quality asynchronous store-and-forward telemedicine systems (ASFTSs) remains a challenge. However, there is no globally accepted standard definition that determines what the important quality characteristics for this type of software system are and/or what defines a mature software process for producing high-quality ASTFSs. Through adopting a multi-step research methodology, we define a quality model for ASFTSs, indicating relevant quality characteristics and their priority for this specific type of software system, based upon ISO/IEC 25010. We, then, propose an extended software process capability/maturity model based on ISO/IEC 15504 and ISO/IEC 12207 to meet these particular quality requirements. The resulting model can be used to both guide the development and the evaluation of such systems. We expect that the availability of such a customized model will facilitate the development of high-quality ASFTSs, reducing related risks and improving the quality of telemedicine services.
KeywordsSoftware process capability/maturity models Asynchronous store-and-forward telemedicine systems ISO/IEC 15504 Software quality CMMI
- 1.ISO. TR 16056–1:2004 Health informatics—Interoperability of Telehealth Systems and Networks. Part 1: Introductions and definitions. Int’l Organization for Standardization, 2004.Google Scholar
- 3.U.S. Congress—Office of Technology Assessment. Bringing Health Care Online: The Role of Information Technologies. Office of Technology Assessment. U.S. Congress, Ed.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995. Available at: http://www.fas.org/ota/reports/9507.pdf Accessed 10 Oct 2012.
- 4.LeRouge C et al. Telemedicine Encounter Quality: Comparing Patient and Provider Perspectives of a Socio-Technical System. Proc.of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii/USA, 2004.Google Scholar
- 6.CMMI Product Team. CMMI for Development (CMMI-DEV), Version 1.3. Technical Report CMU/SEI-2010-TR-033, Carnegie Mellon University/Software Engineering Institute, Pittsburgh/Pennsylvania, 2010.Google Scholar
- 7.ISO/IEC 12207:2008, Information technology—Software life cycle processes. Int’l Organization for Standardization, 2008.Google Scholar
- 8.ISO/IEC 15504:2003–2008, Information technology—Software process assessment. Int’l Organization for Standardization. Part 1–Part 7, 2003 to 2008.Google Scholar
- 9.ITIL. ITIL v3 Refresh, 2011. Available at: http://www.itil-officialsite.com. Accessed 10 Oct 2012.
- 11.Cass A et al. SPICE for SPACE Trials, Risk Analysis, and Process Improvement. Softw Process: Improv Pract. 2004; 9(1).Google Scholar
- 12.Spice User Group. Automotive SPICE® Process Reference Model v4.5. Technical Report, 2012. Available at: http://www.automotivespice.com/ Accessed 10 Oct 2012.
- 13.Gresse von Wangenheim C, Hauck JCR, Salviano CF, Wangenheim A. Systematic literature review of software process capability/maturity models. Proc. of 10th International Conference on Software Process. Improvement and Capability dEtermination (SPICE), Pisa/Italy, 2010.Google Scholar
- 14.McCaffery F, Dorling A. Medi SPICE development. Softw Process Maint Evol: Improv Pract J. 2010;22(4):255–68.Google Scholar
- 15.McCaffery F, Richardson I. MediSPI: a software process improvement model for the medical device industry based upon ISO/IEC 15504. Frankfurt/Germany: Proc. of Int. SPICE Days; 2007.Google Scholar
- 16.U.S. General Accounting Office. Telemedicine: Federal Strategy is Needed to Guide Investments. Washington, DC: U.S. Senate, 1997.Google Scholar
- 17.Institute of Medicine. Telemedicine: A Guide to Assessing Telecommunications in Health Care, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1996.Google Scholar
- 18.Tulu B, Chatterjee S, Laxminarayan, S. A Taxonomy of Telemedicine Efforts with respect to Applications, Infrastructure, Delivery Tools, Type of Setting and Purpose. Proc. of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Island of Hawaii, 2005.Google Scholar
- 19.Maheu MM, Whitten P, Allen A. E-health, telehealth, and telemedicine: a guide to start-Up and success. 1st ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2001.Google Scholar
- 20.Coiera E. Guide to medical informatics, the internet and telemedicine. 1st ed. London: Chapman & Hall; 1997.Google Scholar
- 21.Glueckauf RL, Whitton JD, Nickelson DW. Telehealth: the New frontier in rehabilitation and health care. In: Scherer MJ, editor. Assistive technology: matching device and consumer for successful rehabilitation. 1st ed. Washington D.C: American Psychological Association; 2002.Google Scholar
- 22.Maia RS, von Wangenheim A, Nobre LF. A Statewide Telemedicine Network for Public Health in Brazil. Proc. of 19th IEEE Symposium on Computer Based Medical Systems, Salt Lake City/Utah, 2006.Google Scholar
- 23.EHTEL—European Health Telematics Association. Sustainable Telemedicine: Paradigms for future-proof healthcare—A Briefing Paper. Version 1.0, 20 February 2008.Google Scholar
- 26.Staemmler M, Walz M, Weisser G, Engelmann U, Weininger R, Ernstberger A, Sturm J. Establishing End-to-End Security in a Nationwide Network for Telecooperation. Proc. Of the 24th Medical Informatics in Europe Conference. Amsterdam/Netherlands, 2012, pp. 512–516.Google Scholar
- 27.Paulk MC. A history of the capability maturity model for software. ASQ Softw Qual Prof. 2009;12(1):5–19.Google Scholar
- 29.Fuggetta A. Software process: A Roadmap. Proc. of the 22nd Int. Conference on Software Engineering, Limerick/Ireland, 2000, pp. 25–34.Google Scholar
- 30.Salviano CF, Figueiredo A. Unified Basic Concepts for Process Capability Models. Proc. of 20th Int. Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, San Francisco/California, 2008, pp. 173–178.Google Scholar
- 34.von Wangenheim A, Barcellos CL, Wagner HM, Gomes CC. Ways to implement large scale telemedicine: the Santa Catarina experience. Lat Am J Telehealth. 2009;3:364–76.Google Scholar
- 35.ISO/IEC. 25010:2011 Systems and software engineering—Systems and software Quality Requirements and Evaluation (SQuaRE)—System and software quality models. Int’l Organization for Standardization, 2011.Google Scholar
- 36.Gresse von Wangenheim C, von Wangenheim A. A Software Quality Model for Asynchronous Store-and-Forward Telemedicine Systems. Technical Report INCoD/UFSC 005/2011-E-GQS, GQS/INCoD/UFSC, Florianópolis/Brazil, 2011. Available at: http://www.incod.ufsc.br/a-software-quality-model-for-asynchronous-store-and-forward-telemedicine-systems/ Accessed 10 Oct 2012.
- 37.Hauck JCR, Gresse von Wangenheim C, McCaffery F, Buglione L. Proposing an ISO/IEC 15504–2 Compliant Method for Process Capability/Maturity Models Customization. Proc. of the 12th Int. Conference on Product Focused Software (PROFES), Torre Canne/Italy, 2011.Google Scholar
- 38.Buglione L, Gresse von Wangenheim C, Hauck JCR, McCaffery F. The LEGO Maturity & Capability Model Approach. Proc. of the 5th World Congress on Software Quality, Shanghai/China, 2011.Google Scholar
- 39.ISO/IEC. 21827:2008—Information Technology—Security techniques—Systems Security Engineering—Capability Maturity Model (SSE-CMM), 2008.Google Scholar
- 40.Northrop LM, Clements PC. A Framework for Software Product Line Practice, Version 5.0. SEI, Pittsburgh/Pennsylvania, July 2007, Available at: http://www.sei.cmu.edu/productlines/frame_report Accessed 10 Oct 2012.
- 41.Jones LG, Soule AL. Software Process Improvement and Product Line Practice: CMMI and the Framework for Software Product Line Practice, Technical Note CMU/SEI-2002-TN-012, July 2002.Google Scholar
- 42.Stallinger F, Neumann R, Schossleitner R, Zeilinger R. Linking software life cycle activities with product strategy and economics: extending ISO/IEC 12207 with product management best practices. Limerick/Irleland: Proc. of the Int Conference SPICE; 2011.Google Scholar
- 43.Hoyer C, Chroust G. Evolving standard process reference models for product line development. Dubrovnik/Croatia: Proc. of Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications; 2006.Google Scholar
- 44.ISO. 18529:2000 Ergonomics—Ergonomics of human-system interaction—Human-centred lifecycle process descriptions. Int’l Organization for Standardization, 2000.Google Scholar