Race and Social Problems

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 30–41 | Cite as

Teacher-Based Racial Discrimination: The Role of Racial Pride and Religiosity Among African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents

  • Sheretta T. Butler-Barnes
  • Stephanie Cook
  • Seanna Leath
  • Cleopatra Caldwell


This study explored the extent to which private regard and religiosity beliefs serve as protective factors for school bonding among African American and Caribbean black adolescents who experience racial discrimination in school. Findings are drawn from a nationally representative sample of (n = 810) African American and (n = 360) Caribbean black adolescents (52% girls) aged 13–17 (Mage = 15, SD = 1.42) years. Results suggest that perceiving racial discrimination from teachers was associated with lower levels of school bonding for African American and Caribbean black adolescents. For African American adolescents, perceiving more racial discrimination from teachers and reporting lower private regard beliefs was associated with less school bonding. The findings for Caribbean black adolescents revealed that endorsing moderate levels of religiosity and perceiving higher rates of teacher discrimination was associated with less school bonding. The developmental significance and implications for future research are discussed.


African American Caribbean black American Racial discrimination Religiosity Racial identity School bonding 



The NSAL data are supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH; U01-MH57716) with supplemental support from the OBSSR Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and the National Institute on Drug Abuse at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the University of Michigan to Dr. James S. Jackson. Dr. Joe was supported by a Grant (R01-MH82807) from the National Institute of Mental Health.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheretta T. Butler-Barnes
    • 1
  • Stephanie Cook
    • 2
  • Seanna Leath
    • 3
  • Cleopatra Caldwell
    • 3
  1. 1.George Warren Brown School of Social WorkWashington University in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.New York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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