The gap between white and Hispanic poverty has remained stable for decades despite dramatic changes in the size and composition of the two groups. The gap, however, conceals crucial differences within the Hispanic population whereby some leverage education and smaller families to stave off poverty while others facing barriers to citizenship and English language acquisition face particularly high rates. In this paper, we use Decennial Census and American Community Survey data to examine poverty rates between Hispanic and non-Hispanic, white heads of household. We find the usual suspects stratify poverty risks: gender, age, employment, education, marital status, family size, and metro area status. In addition, Hispanic ethnicity has become a weaker indicator of poverty. We then decompose trends in poverty gaps between racial and ethnic groups. Between 1980 and 2010, poverty gaps persisted between whites and Hispanics. We find support for a convergence of advantages hypothesis and only partial support (among Hispanic noncitizens and Hispanics with limited English language proficiency) for a rising disadvantages hypothesis. Poverty-reducing gains in educational attainment alongside smaller families kept white–Hispanic poverty gaps from rising. If educational attainment continues to rise and family size drops further, poverty rates could fall, particularly for Hispanics who still have lower education and larger families, on average. Gains toward citizenship and greater English language proficiency would also serve to reduce the Hispanic–white poverty gap.
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Appendix : Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition Models
Appendix : Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition Models
|Change in Hispanic poverty|
|Speaks English not well or not at all||0.00945||0.00889||0.01900||0.02909|
|Foreign-born, naturalized citizen||− 0.00192||− 0.00173||0.00086||0.00300|
|Working in a typical “immigrant job”||− 0.00159||n.s.||0.00032||0.00288|
|Number of adult workers in family||− 0.00533||− 0.00983||− 0.00507||− 0.01326|
|Head employed < 50 weeks last year||0.00442||0.00602||0.00671||− 0.00673|
|25–34 years old||0.00224||0.00404||0.00299||0.00332|
|35–44 years old||0.00066||0.00108||0.00074||0.00073|
|45–54 years old||0.00033||0.00025||− 0.00039||− 0.00019|
|65–74 years old||0.00454||0.00620||0.00606||0.00608|
|75 + years old||0.00210||0.00562||0.01007||0.01031|
|Less than high school||0.01596||0.02405||0.02676||0.02909|
|High school, 12 years||− 0.00061||− 0.00083||− 0.00086||− 0.00056|
|College, 4 + years||0.00076||0.00186||0.00265||0.00392|
|Married, spouse absent||0.00185||0.00165||0.00188||0.00291|
|Divorced||0.00061||n.s||− 0.00141||− 0.00258|
|Widowed||− 0.00349||− 0.00358||− 0.00248||− 0.00258|
|Never married, single||0.00058||0.00132||0.00171||0.00502|
|No children under age 18||0.00045||0.00334||0.00295||0.00539|
|Two children under age 18||0.00116||0.00215||0.00215||0.00233|
|Three children under age 18||0.01030||0.01193||0.00965||0.00873|
|Presence of a child under age 5||0.00276||0.00205||0.00175||0.00171|
|Not in metro area||− 0.00130||− 0.00400||− 0.00114||− 0.00115|
|Metro area, central city||− 0.00588||− 0.00318||− 0.00195||− 0.00140|
|Metro status not identifiable||0.00052||0.00069||− 0.00055||− 0.00063|
|Proportion of gap explained||46%||56%||79%||87%|
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Mattingly, M.J., Pedroza, J.M. Convergence and Disadvantage in Poverty Trends (1980–2010): What is Driving the Relative Socioeconomic Position of Hispanics and Whites?. Race Soc Probl 10, 53–66 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12552-017-9221-1