School-Based Racial and Gender Discrimination among African American Adolescents: Exploring Gender Variation in Frequency and Implications for Adjustment

  • Courtney D. CogburnEmail author
  • Tabbye M. Chavous
  • Tiffany M. Griffin


The present study examined school-based racial and gender discrimination experiences among African American adolescents in Grade 8 (n = 204 girls; n = 209 boys). A primary goal was exploring gender variation in frequency of both types of discrimination and associations of discrimination with academic and psychological functioning among girls and boys. Girls and boys did not vary in reported racial discrimination frequency, but boys reported more gender discrimination experiences. Multiple regression analyses within gender groups indicated that among girls and boys, racial discrimination and gender discrimination predicted higher depressive symptoms and school importance and racial discrimination predicted self-esteem. Racial and gender discrimination were also negatively associated with grade point average among boys but were not significantly associated in girls’ analyses. Significant gender discrimination X racial discrimination interactions resulted in the girls’ models predicting psychological outcomes and in boys’ models predicting academic achievement. Taken together, findings suggest the importance of considering gender- and race-related experiences in understanding academic and psychological adjustment among African American adolescents.


Race Gender Discrimination African American Adolescence 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Courtney D. Cogburn
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tabbye M. Chavous
    • 2
  • Tiffany M. Griffin
    • 3
  1. 1.University of Michigan, Institute for Social ResearchAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.University of Michigan, Combined Program in Education and PsychologyAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.University of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

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