Advertisement

Race and Social Problems

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 67–76 | Cite as

Neighborhood Effects on Racial–Ethnic Identity: The Undermining Role of Segregation

  • Daphna OysermanEmail author
  • Kwang-Il Yoon
Article

Abstract

African American and Latino youth experience stereotypes about their group’s academic ability but youth high in three components of racial–ethnic identity Connectedness, Awareness of Racism, and Embedded Achievement are buffered from these stereotypes and are more likely to attain good grades in school, feel efficacious, and engaged with academics. In the current study, the effect of neighborhood segregation on these components of racial–ethnic identity was examined. Segregation impairs racial–ethnic identity Connectedness, Awareness of Racism, and Embedded Achievement among African American and Latino youth. Eighth graders (n = 206 African American, n = 131 Latino) living in 100 census tracks filled out racial–ethnic identity scales. A multilevel model demonstrates that segregation is associated with lower scores on each of the components of racial–ethnic identity.

Keywords

Census Tract Ethnic Identity Collective Efficacy Academic Outcome Neighborhood Diversity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank all the students who participated in this study as well as the interviewers, Jillian Fortain who obtained the Census Track Data and Deborah Bybee who helped with preliminary analyses. Funding for data collection came from the National Institutes of Health (NIMH R01 MH58299).

References

  1. Adelman, R. M., & Gocker, J. C. (2007). Racial residential segregation in urban America. Sociology Compass, 1, 404–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altschul, I., Oyserman, D., & Bybee, D. (2006). Racial–ethnic identity in mid-adolescence: Content and change as predictors of grades. Child Development, 77, 1155–1169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arroyo, C., & Zigler, E. (1995). Racial identity, academic achievement, and the psychological well-being of economically disadvantaged adolescents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 903–914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bankston, C., & Caldas, S. J. (1996). Majority African American schools and social injustice: The influence of de facto segregation on academic achievement. Social Forces, 75(2), 535–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennett, D. M. (2006). Cultural resources and school engagement among African American youths: The role of racial socialization and ethnic identity. Children & Schools, 28, 197–206.Google Scholar
  6. Bickel, R. (2007). Multilevel analysis for applied research: It’s just regression! New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bigler, R., & Liben, S. (2007). Developmental intergroup theory: Explaining and reducing children’s social stereotyping and prejudice. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 162–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chavous, T. M., Bernat, D. H., Schmeelk-Cone, K., Caldwell, C. H., Kohn-Wood, L., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2003). Racial identity and academic attainment among African American adolescents. Child Development, 74, 1076–1090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chavous, T., Rivas, D., Green, L., & Helaire, L. (2002). Role of student background, perceptions of ethnic fit, and racial identification in the academic adjustment of African American students at a predominantly white university. Journal of Black Psychology, 28, 234–260.Google Scholar
  10. Clark, K. (1965/1989). Dark Ghetto: Dilemmas of Social Power. Wesleyan Edition, Wesleyan University Press. Google Scholar
  11. Clark, K., & Clark, M. (1939). The development of consciousness of self and the emergence of racial identification in Negro preschool children. Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 591–599.Google Scholar
  12. Eggers, M., & Massey, D. (1992). A longitudinal analysis of urban poverty: Blacks in U.S. metropolitan areas between 1970 and 1980. Social Science Research, 21, 175–203.Google Scholar
  13. Gelman, A., & Hill, J. (2006). Data analysis using regression and multilevel/hierarchical models. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J. F., Rivkin, S. G. (2002). New evidence about Brown v. Board of Education: The complex effects of school racial composition on achievement. NBER Working paper no. 8741.Google Scholar
  15. House, J. S. (2002). Understanding social factors and inequalities in health: 20th century progress and 21st century prospects. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 125–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Howard, J. (2000). Social psychology of identities. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 367–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hraba, J., & Grant, G. (1970). Black is beautiful: A reexamination of racial preference and identification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16, 398–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kibour, Y. (2001). Ethiopian immigrants’ racial identity attitudes and depression symptomatology: An exploratory study. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 7, 47–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kreft, I. G. G., & de Leeuw, J. (1998). Introducing multilevel modeling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  20. Krivo, L. J., Peterson, R. D., Rizzo, H., & Reynolds, J. R. (1998). Race, segregation and the concentration of disadvantage: 1980–1990. Social Problems, 45(1), 61–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Luhtanen, R., & Crocker, J. (1992). A collective self-esteem scale: Self-evaluation of one’s social identity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 302–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Maas, C. J. M., & Hox, J. J. (2005). Sufficient sample sizes for multilevel modeling. Methodology, 1, 86–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Maly, M. (2000). The Neighborhood Diversity Index: A complementary measure of racial residential settlement. Journal of Urban Affairs, 22, 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Martinez, R., & Dukes, R. (1997). The effects of ethnic identity, ethnicity, and gender on adolescent well-being. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26, 503–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. (1988). The dimensions of residential segregation. Social Forces, 67, 281–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. (1989). Hypersegregation in US Metropolitan areas: Black and Hispanic segregation along five dimensions. Demography, 26, 373–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. (1993). American apartheid: segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Massey, D. S., & Eggers, M. L. (1990). The ecology of inequality: Minorities and the concentration of poverty, 1970–1980. The American Journal of Sociology, 95(5), 1153–1188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Massey, D. S., Gross, A., & Shibuya, K. (1994). Migration, segregation, and the geographic concentration of poverty. American Sociological Review, 59, 425–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. O’Brien, V., Martinez-Pons, M., & Kopala, M. (1999). Mathematics self-efficacy, ethnic identity, gender, and career interests related to mathematics and science. Journal of Educational Research, 92, 231–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Oyserman, D. (2008). Racial–ethnic self-schemas: Multi-dimensional identity-based motivation. Journal of Research on Personality, 42, 1186–1198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Oyserman, D., Brickman, D., & Rhodes, M. (2007). Racial–ethnic identity in adolescence: Content and consequences for African American and Latino and Latina youth. In A. Fuligni (Ed.), Contesting stereotypes and creating identities: Social categories, identities and educational participation (pp. 91–114). New York: Russell-Sage.Google Scholar
  33. Oyserman, D., Bybee, D., & Terry, K. (2003a). Gendered racial identity and involvement with school. Self and Identity, 2, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Oyserman, D., Bybee, D., & Terry, K. (2006). Possible selves and academic outcomes: How and when possible selves impel action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 188–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Oyserman, D., Gant, L., & Ager, J. (1995). A socially contextualized model of African American identity: Possible selves and school persistence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 1216–1232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Oyserman, D., Harrison, K., & Bybee, D. (2001). Can racial identity be promotive of academic efficacy? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25, 379–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Oyserman, D., Kemmelmeier, M., Fryberg, S., Brosh, H., & Hart-Johnson, T. (2003b). Racial–ethnic self-schemas. Social Psychology Quarterly, 66, 333–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Oyserman, D., & Markus, H. (1993). The sociocultural self. In J. Suls & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on the self, Vol. 4 (pp. 187–220). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  39. Parham, T., & Helms, J. (1985). Attitudes of racial identity and self-esteem of Black students: An exploratory investigation. Journal of College Student Personnel, 26, 143–147.Google Scholar
  40. Peterson, R. D., & Krivo, L. J. (1993). Racial segregation and black urban homicide. Social Forces, 71(4), 1001–1026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Phillips, T. M., & Pittman, J. F. (2003). Identity processes in poor adolescents: Exploring the linkages between economic disadvantage and the primary task of adolescence. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 3, 115–129.Google Scholar
  42. Pierre, M. R., & Mahalik, J. R. (2005). Examining African self-consciousness and black racial identity as predictors of Black men’s psychological well-being. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 11, 28–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pillay, Y. (2005). Racial identity as a predictor of the psychological health of African American students at a predominantly white university. Journal of Black Psychology, 31, 46–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pyant, C., & Yanico, B. (1991). Relationship of racial identity and gender-role attitudes to Black women’s psychological well-being. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38, 315–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear model: Applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  46. Rowley, S. J., Sellers, R. M., Chavous, T. M., & Smith, M. A. (1998). The relationship between racial identity and self-esteem in African American college and high school students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 715–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sampson, R. (2003). The neighborhood context of well-being. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 46(Suppl), S53–S64.Google Scholar
  48. Sellers, R., Smith, M., & Shelton, J. (1998). Multidimensional model of racial identity: A reconceptualization of African American racial identity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 18–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Snijders, T. A. B., & Bosker, R. (1999). Multilevel analysis: An introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  50. Steele, C. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52, 613–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Steele, C., Spencer, S., & Aronson, J. (2002). Contending with group image: The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 379–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stevenson, H. (1995). Relationship of adolescent perceptions of racial socialization to racial identity. Journal of Black Psychology, 21, 49–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stevenson, H. (2005, October). Playing with anger: A cultural socialization intervention to help Black youth manage hypervulnerability. Sundberg Conference, University of Oregon, Eugene Oregon.Google Scholar
  54. Swanson, D., Spencer, M. B., & Harpalani, V. (2003). Psychosocial development in racially and ethnically diverse youth: Conceptual and methodological challenges in the 21st century. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 743–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In W. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (2nd ed., pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
  56. Taylor, S., Repetti, R., & Seeman, T. (1997). Health psychology: What is an unhealthy environment and how does it get under the skin? Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 411–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vandiver, B. J., Cross, W. E. J., Worrell, F. C., & Fhagen-Smith, P. E. (2002). Validating the cross racial identity scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49, 71–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wacquant, L. J., & Wilson, J. W. (1989). The cost of racial and social class segregation in the inner city. Annuals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 501, 8–25.Google Scholar
  59. Wallace, J., & Muroff, J. (2002). Preventing substance abuse among African American children and youth: Race differences in risk factor exposure and vulnerability. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 22, 235–261.Google Scholar
  60. Wilson, W. J. (1996). When work disappears: The world of the new urban poor. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf Inc.Google Scholar
  61. Worrell, F. C., Vandiver, B. J., Cross, W. E. J., & Fhagen-Smith, P. E. (2004). Reliability and structural validity of cross racial identity scale scores in a sample of African American adults. Journal of Black Psychology, 30, 489–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Social ResearchUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Rackham Graduate SchoolUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations