High-speed atomic force microscopy and its future prospects
Various techniques have been developed and used to investigate how proteins produce complex biological architectures and phenomena. Among these techniques, high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) holds a unique position. It is only HS-AFM that allows the simultaneous assessment of structure and dynamics of single protein molecules in action. This new microscopy tool has been successfully applied to a variety of proteins, from motor proteins to membrane proteins, antibodies, enzymes, and even to intrinsically disordered proteins. And yet there still remain many biomolecular phenomena that cannot be addressed by HS-AFM in its current form. Here, I present a brief history of HS-AFM development, describe the current state of HS-AFM, and then discuss which new biological scanning probe microscopy techniques will be coming up next.
KeywordsImaging High-speed AFM Proteins Dynamic processes Structural changes
This work was supported by JST/CREST (#JPMJCR13M1) and KAKENHI from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (#21113002, #24227005 and #26119003).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
Toshio Ando declares that he has no conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the author.
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