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Survey of zearalenone and type-B trichothecene mycotoxins in swine feed in the USA

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Abstract

New information is needed regarding the types and concentrations of mycotoxins in swine feed. We hypothesized that (1) the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-AcDON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZEN) vary among swine ingredient and feed types, and (2) the inclusion of specific ingredients is associated with mycotoxin contamination in complete feed. A total of 707 samples were collected from cooperators in 14 states between June 2018 and January 2020 then analyzed for DON, 3-AcDON, 15-AcDON, NIV, and ZEN contamination using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Ninety-four percent (663/707) of samples contained DON, 33% (230/707) of samples contained 3-AcDON, 57% (404/707) of samples contained 15-AcDON, 1% (6/707) of samples contained NIV, and 47% (335/707) of samples contained ZEN. Seventy-three percent (514/707) of samples contained multiple mycotoxins. Resulting DON concentrations were below the national advisory limits for all sample types, and no advisory limits are imposed for the other mycotoxins studied. Increased incorporation of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) was associated with increased DON in complete feed (R2 = 0.82).

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All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article and its supplementary information files.

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Abbreviations

3-AcDON:

3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol

15-AcDON:

15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol

CP:

Co-product

DDGS:

Distillers’ dried grains with solubles

DON:

Deoxynivalenol

EU:

European Union

FDA:

Food and Drug Administration

NASS:

National agriculture statistics service

NIV:

Nivalenol

SBM:

Soybean meal

USA:

United States of America

USDA:

United States Department of Agriculture

ZEN:

Zearalenone

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Acknowledgements

The authors sincerely thank Nicole McMaster for her insight and assistance in sample analysis and method validation. We also thank Holly Newberne and Christine Ayala and all participating swine feed production teams for their assistance in sample collection, preparation, organization, and storage.

Funding

This work was supported by the Pratt Foundation under Grant #444347.

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Correspondence to David G. Schmale .

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Pack, E.D., Weiland, S., Musser, R. et al. Survey of zearalenone and type-B trichothecene mycotoxins in swine feed in the USA. Mycotoxin Res 37, 297–313 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12550-021-00442-y

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12550-021-00442-y

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