The first in vivo application of synthetic polymers based on methacrylic acid as an aflatoxin sorbent in an animal model

  • Homa Arak
  • Mohammad Amir Karimi TorshiziEmail author
  • Mehdi Hedayati
  • Shaban Rahimi
Original Article


This study attempts to evaluate the potential aflatoxin binder activity of a molecularly imprinted polymer (TMU95) synthesized to target the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) analog molecule in comparison to a commercial toxin binder (CTB). Adsorption experiments were carried out to assess the ability to bind to AFB1 at various pH values. The strength of binding was investigated by the chemisorption index. The isothermal analysis was used to determine the maximum adsorption capacity values. The ability of TMU95 and CTB to adsorb essential minerals was evaluated and the obtained data suggested that CTB would significantly reduce availability of them compared to TMU95. The in vivo efficacy of TMU95 as an aflatoxin (AF) binder in duckling exposed to aflatoxin-contaminated feed from 4 to 18 days of age in comparison to the CTB was also assessed. TMU95 and CTB were effective in reducing the adverse effects caused by AFs on feed conversion ratio of duckling (p ≤ 0.01), and also showed a minor reduction of injuries caused by AFs on visceral organs enlargement (p ≤ 0.01). It was concluded that TMU95 could absorb AFB1 in vitro efficiently and had beneficial health effects that could alleviate some of the toxic effects of AFs on growing duckling performance similar to CTB.


Aflatoxin Duckling Isothermal analysis Moleculary imprinted polymer 



The authors would like to thank Dr. Rasoul Rahnamaie from Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, for his kind assistance with the polymer and commercial toxin binder characterization.

Source of funding

This research was partially supported by Vivan Group (Mashhad, Iran).

Compliance with ethical standards

The animal use protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Care of Tarbiat Modares University.

Conflict of interest


Supplementary material

12550_2019_353_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.2 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1209 kb)


  1. Alvarez-Lorenzo C (ed) (2013) Handbook of molecularly imprinted polymers. Smithers RapraGoogle Scholar
  2. Anjum MA, Khan SH, Sahota AW, Sardar R (2012) Assessment of aflatoxin B1 in commercial poultry feed and feed ingredients. J Anim Plant Sci 22:268–272Google Scholar
  3. Araujo PHH, Sayer C, Giudici R, Poco JG (2002) Techniques for reducing residual monomer content in polymers: a review. Polym Eng Sci 42:1442–1468. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aravind KL, Patil VS, Devegowda G, Umakantha B, Ganpule SP (2003) Efficacy of esterified glucomannan to counteract mycotoxicosis in naturally contaminated feed on performance and serum biochemical and hematological parameters in broilers. Poult Sci 82:571–576. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avantaggiato G, Solfrizzo M, Visconti A (2005) Recent advances on the use of adsorbent materials for detoxification of Fusarium mycotoxins. Food Addit Contam 22:379–388. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ayawei N, Ebelegi AN, Wankasi D (2017) Modelling and interpretation of adsorption isotherms. J Chem 2017:1–11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bayram E, Yılmaz E, Uzun L, Say R, Denizli A (2017) Multiclonal plastic antibodies for selective aflatoxin extraction from food samples. Food Chem 221:829–837. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhat R, Rai RV, Karim AA (2010) Mycotoxins in food and feed: present status and future concerns. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 9:57–81. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boudergue C, Burel C, Dragacci S, Favrot MC, Fremy JM, Massimi C, Morgavi D (2009) Review of mycotoxin-detoxifying agents used as feed additives: mode of action, efficacy and feed/food safety. EFSA Support Publ 6(9).
  10. Bulut Albayrak C (2012) Adsorptive characteristics of aflatoxin B1 in the presence of purified clinoptilolite rich mineral and Lactobacillus plantarum S2. Dissertation, Izmir Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  11. CAST (2003) Mycotoxins: risks in plant, animal and human systems. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, AmesGoogle Scholar
  12. Celik I, Oguz H, Demet O, Donmez HH, Boydak M, Sur E (2000) Efficacy of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone in reducing the immunotoxicity of aflatoxin in growing broilers. Br Poult Sci 41:430–439. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen K, Fang J, Peng X, Cui H, Chen J, Wang F, Zhou Y (2014) Effect of selenium supplementation on aflatoxin B1-induced histopathological lesions and apoptosis in bursa of Fabricius in broilers. Food Chem Toxicol 74:91–97. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Devreese M (2013) Development of in vitro and in vivo models for testing the efficacy of mycotoxin detoxifying agents and their possible interaction with oral absorption of veterinary drugs. Dissertation, Ghent UniversityGoogle Scholar
  15. Diaz-Bao M, Regal P, Barreiro R, Fente CA, Cepeda A (2016) A facile method for the fabrication of magnetic molecularly imprinted stir-bars: a practical example with aflatoxins in baby foods. J Chromatogr A 1471:51–59. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. EFSA Panel on food additives and nutrient sources added to food (ANS) (2010) Scientific opinion on the safety of anionic methacrylate copolymer for the proposed uses as a food additive. EFSA J 8:1656–1681. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Freitas AFFLD (2015). Synthesis and characterization of molecularly imprinted polymer particles (MIPs) for biomedical applications. Dissertation, Instituto Politecnico de BragancaGoogle Scholar
  18. Fruhauf S, Schwartz H, Ottner F, Krska R, Vekiru E (2012) Yeast cell based feed additives: studies on aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 29:217–231. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gunay A, Arslankaya E, Tosun I (2007) Lead removal from aqueous solution by natural and pretreated clinoptilolite: adsorption equilibrium and kinetics. J Hazard Mater 146:362–371. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hadjeba-Medjdoub K, Faucet-Marquis V, Joannis-Cassan C, Ballet N, Pfohl-Leszkowicz A (2009) Analysis of the factor influencing mycotoxin adsorption on yeast/development of a method allowing screening. In proceedings of the 2009 international society for mycotoxicology conference, worldwide mycotoxin reduction in food and feed chains. International society for mycotoxicology, university of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, p 12.
  21. Hedayati M, Manafi M, Yari M, Mousavipour SV (2014) Commercial broilers exposed to aflatoxin B1: efficacy of a commercial mycotoxin binder on internal organ weights, biochemical traits and mortality. Int J Agric 4:351–358. Google Scholar
  22. Ho YS (2006) Review of second-order models for adsorption systems. J Hazard Mater 136:681–689. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hoshino Y, Koide H, Urakami T, Kanazawa H, Kodama T, Oku N, Shea KJ (2010) Recognition, neutralization and clearance of target peptides in the bloodstream of living mice by molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles: a plastic antibody. J Am Chem Soc 132:6644–6645. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (2004) Some drinking-water disinfectants and contaminants, including arsenic. IARC Monogr Vol 84. Lyon, France.
  25. Iskander AL, Khald EM, Sheta AS (2011) Zinc and manganese sorption behavior by natural zeolite and bentonite. AOAS 56:43–48. Google Scholar
  26. Jalili M (2016) A review on aflatoxins reduction in food. IJHSE 3:445–459Google Scholar
  27. Jalili M, Jinap S, Son R (2011) The effect of chemical treatment on reduction of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in black and white pepper during washing. Food Addit Contam 28:485–493. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jiang M, Braiek M, Florea A, Chrouda A, Farre C, Bonhomme A, Bessueille F, Vocanson F, Zhang A, Jaffrezic-Renault N (2015) Aflatoxin B1 detection using a highly-sensitive molecularly-imprinted electrochemical sensor based on an electropolymerized metal organic framework. Toxins 7:3540–3553. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Karaman M, Basmacioglu H, Ortatatli M, Oguz H (2005) Evaluation of the detoxifying effect of yeast glucomannan on aflatoxicosis in broilers as assessed by gross examination and histopathology. Br Poult Sci 46:394–400. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kolosov A, Stroka J (2012) Evaluation of the effect of mycotoxin binders in animal feed on the analytical performance of standardised methods for the determination of mycotoxins in feed. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 29:1959–1971. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Li JJ, Suo DC, Su XO (2010) Binding capacity for aflatoxin B1 by different adsorbents. Agric Sci China 9:449–456. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liang G, Zhai H, Huang L, Tan X, Zhou Q, Yu X, Lin H (2018) Synthesis of carbon quantum dots-doped dummy molecularly imprinted polymer monolithic column for selective enrichment and analysis of aflatoxin B1 in peanut. J Pharm Biomed Anal 149:258–264. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu L, Yao W, Rao Y, Lu X, Gao J (2017) pH-Responsive carriers for oral drug delivery: challenges and opportunities of current platforms. Drug Deliv 24:569–581. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Manafi M (2012) Counteracting effect of high grade sodium bentonite during aflatoxicosis in broilers. J Agric Sci Technol 14:539–547Google Scholar
  35. Monson MS, Coulombe RA, Reed KM (2015) Aflatoxicosis: lessons from toxicity and responses to aflatoxin B1 in poultry. Agric 5:742–777. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Murugesan GR, Ledoux DR, Naehrer K, Berthiller F, Applegate TJ, Grenier B, Phillips TD, Schatzmayr G (2015) Prevalence and effects of mycotoxins on poultry health and performance, and recent development in mycotoxin counteracting strategies. J Poult Sci 94:1298–1315. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nantasenamat C, Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya C, Naenna T, Prachayasittikul V (2007) Quantitative structure-imprinting factor relationship of molecularly imprinted polymers. Biosens Bioelectron 22:3309–3317. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. National Research Council (1994) Nutrient requirements of poultry, 9th edn. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  39. Olabisi RM (2015) Cell microencapsulation with synthetic polymers. J Biomed Mater Res A 103:846–859. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Papaioannou DS, Kyriakis CS, Papasteriadis A, Roumbies N (2002) A field study on the effect of in-feed inclusion of a natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) on health status and performance of sows/gilts and their litters. Res Vet Sci 72:51–59. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pasha TN, Farooq MU, Khattak FM, Jabbar MA, Khan AD (2007) Effectiveness of sodium bentonite and two commercial products as aflatoxin absorbents in diets for broiler chickens. Anim Feed Sci Technol 132:103–110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Peng X, Zhang K, Bai S, Ding X, Zeng Q, Yang J, Fang J, Chen K (2014) Histological lesions, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and T cell subsets changes of spleen in chicken fed aflatoxin-contaminated corn. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11:8567–8580. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rashid H, Sheikh Z, Vohra F (2015) Allergic effects of the residual monomer used in denture base acrylic resins. Eur J Dent 9:614–619. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances (RTECS) (2000) Methacrylic acid entry. RTECS database. National Library of Medicine, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  45. Rushing BR, Selim MI (2016) Effect of dietary acids on the formation of aflatoxin B2a as a means to detoxify aflatoxin B1. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 33:1456–1467. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Santin E, Paulillo AC, Maiorka A, Nakaghi LSO, Macari M, Silva AVF, Alessi AC (2003) Evaluation of the efficacy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall to ameliorate the toxic effects of aflatoxin in broilers. Int J Poult Sci 2:341–344. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. SAS Institute Inc (1990) SAS user’s guide: statistics. SAS Institute Inc, CaryGoogle Scholar
  48. Semong O, Batlokwa BS (2017) Development of an aflatoxin B1 specific molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction sorbent for the selective pre-concentration of toxic aflatoxin B1 from child weaning food, Tsabana. Mol Imprinting 5:1–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Shabani A, Dastar B, Khomeiri M, Shabanpour B, Hassani S (2010) Response of broiler chickens to different levels of nanozeolite during experimental aflatoxicosis. J Biol Sci 10:362–367. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shotwell OL, Hesseltine CW, Stubblefield RD, Sorenson WG (1966) Production of aflatoxin on rice. Appl Microbiol 14:425–428Google Scholar
  51. Sikiti P, Msagati TA, Mamba BB, Mishra AK (2014) Synthesis and characterization of molecularly imprinted polymers for the remediation of PCBs and dioxins in aqueous environments. J Environ Health Sci Eng 12:82–90. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Szumski M, Grzywinski D, Prus W, Buszewski B (2014) Monolithic molecularly imprinted polymeric capillary columns for isolation of aflatoxins. J Chromatogr A 1364:163–170. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tamayo FG, Casillas JL, Martin-Esteban A (2003) Highly selective fenuron-imprinted polymer with a homogeneous binding site distribution prepared by precipitation polymerisation and its application to the clean-up of fenuron in plant samples. Anal Chim Acta 482:165–173. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Thilsing T, Jorgensen RJ, Poulsen HD (2006) In vitro binding capacity of zeolite A to calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in rumen fluid as influenced by changes in pH. Transbound Emerg Dis 53:57–64. Google Scholar
  55. Tola M, Kebede B (2016) Occurrence, importance and control of mycotoxins: a review. Cogent Food Agric 2:1191103. Google Scholar
  56. Tuncdemir AR, Koç A, Polat S, Gumus HO, Dalkiz M (2012) In vivo cytotoxicity of injection molded and conventional pressure pack acrylic resin dentures. Eur J Gen Dent 3:174–177. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. USEPA (2012) Ecological effects test guidelines. OCSPP 850.2200: avian dietary toxicity testGoogle Scholar
  58. Van Rensburg CJ, Van Rensburg CEJ, Van Ryssen JBJ, Casey NH, Rottinghaus GE (2006) In vitro and in vivo assessment of humic acid as an aflatoxin binder in broiler chickens. Poult Sci 85:1576–1583. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vekiru E, Fruhauf S, Sahin M, Ottner F, Schatzmayr G, Krska R (2007) Investigation of various adsorbents for their ability to bind aflatoxin B1. Mycotoxin Res 23:27–33. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wang WJ, Xu ZL, Yu C, Xu XH (2017) Effects of aflatoxin B1 on mitochondrial respiration, ROS generation and apoptosis in broiler cardiomyocytes. Anim Sci J 88:1561–1568. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Webb PA (2003) Introduction to chemical adsorption analytical techniques and their applications to catalysis. Micromeritics instrument corp. Technical publicationsGoogle Scholar
  62. Wei S, Liu Y, Yan Z, Liu L (2015) Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for determination of aflatoxin M1 and B1 in foods and feeds. RSC Adv 5:20951–20960. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yazdanpanah H (2010) Mycotoxin contamination of foodstuffs and feedstuffs in Iran. Iran J Pharm Res 20:9–16Google Scholar
  64. Yazdanpanah H, Zarghi A, Shafaati AR, Foroutan SM, Aboul-Fathi F, Khoddam A, Nazari F, Shaki F (2013) Analysis of aflatoxin B1 in Iranian foods using HPLC and a monolithic column and estimation of its dietary intake. Iran J Pharm Res 12:83–89Google Scholar
  65. Yunus AW, Razzazi-Fazeli E, Bohm J (2011) Aflatoxin B1 in affecting broiler’s performance, immunity, and gastrointestinal tract: a review of history and contemporary issues. Toxins 3:566–590. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zahoor M, Ali Khan F (2016) Aflatoxin B1 detoxification by magnetic carbon nanostructures prepared from maize straw. Desalin Water Treat 57:11893–11903. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zavala-Franco A, Hernandez-Patlan D, Solis-Cruz B, Lopez-Arellano R, Tellez-Isaias G, Vazquez-Duran A, Mendez-Albores A (2018) Assessing the aflatoxin B1 adsorption capacity between biosorbents using an in vitro multicompartmental model simulating the dynamic conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. Toxins 10:484–498. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zeng L, Yang L, Wang S, Yang K (2014) Synthesis and characterization of different crystalline calcium silicate hydrate: application for the removal of aflatoxin B1 from aqueous solution. J Nanomater 2017:1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Mycotoxin (Research Gesellschaft für Mykotoxinforschung e.V.) and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Poultry Science, Faculty of AgricultureTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Research Institute for Endocrine SciencesShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations