Multimycotoxin analysis of South African Aspergillus clavatus isolates
- 192 Downloads
Aspergillus clavatus poisoning is a neuromycotoxicosis of ruminants that occurs sporadically across the world after ingestion of infected feedstuffs. Although various toxic metabolites are synthesized by the fungus, it is not clear which specific or group of mycotoxins induces the syndrome. A. clavatus isolates were deposited in the culture collection of the Biosystematics Division, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council during incidences of livestock poisoning (1988–2016). Six isolates were still viable and these plus three other South African isolates that were also previously deposited in the collection were positively identified as A. clavatus based on morphology and ß-tubulin sequence data. The cultures were screened for multiple mycotoxins using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. Twelve A. clavatus metabolites were detected. The concentrations of the tremorgenic mycotoxins (i.e., tryptoquivaline A and its related metabolites deoxytryptoquivaline A and deoxynortryptoquivaline) were higher than patulin and cytochalasin E. Livestock owners should not feed A. clavatus-infected material to ruminants as all the South African A. clavatus isolates synthesized the same compounds when cultured under similar conditions.
KeywordsAspergillus clavatus Cytochalasin E Patulin Tremorgenic Tryptoquivaline
The authors would also like to express their gratitude to Marie Smith, Stats4science, who performed the statistical analysis and Danielle Henn who assisted with the drawing of the chemical structures.
This work is based on research supported in part by the National Research Foundation of South Africa (Grant number 103747).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
- Botha CJ, Legg MJ, Truter M, Sulyok M (2014) Multitoxin analysis of Aspergillus clavatus infected feed samples implicated in two outbreaks of neuromycotoxicosis in cattle in South Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 81(1):6. https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v81i1.848
- Hayes AW, Phillips TD, Williams WL (1978) Acute toxicity of patulin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 45:275–276Google Scholar
- Kellerman TS, Pienaar JG, Van der Westhuizen GCA, Anderson LAP, Naudé TW (1976) A highly fatal tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of cattle caused by Aspergillus clavatus. Onderstepoort J Vet 43:147–154Google Scholar
- Kellerman TS, Coetzer JAW, Naudé TW, Botha CJ (2005) Plant poisonings and mycotoxicoses of livestock in southern Africa, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Cape TownGoogle Scholar
- Klich MA (2002) Identification of common Aspergillus species. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, UtrechtGoogle Scholar
- Malachova A, Sulyok M, Beltran E, Berthiller F, Krska R (2014) Optimization and validation of a quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method covering 295 bacterial and fungal metabolites including all regulated mycotoxins in four model food matrices. J Chromatogr A 1362:145–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2014.08.037 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Malachova A, Sulyok M, Beltran E, Berthiller F, Krska R (2015) Multi-toxin determination in food—the power of “dilute and shoot” approaches in LC-MS-MS. LC GC Eur 28:542–555Google Scholar
- McKenzie RA, Kelly MA, Shivas RG, Gibson JA, Cook PJ, Widderick K, Guilfoyle AF (2004) Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains. Aust Vet J 82(10):635–638. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2004.tb12614.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Payne RW (2014) Introduction to GenStat for Windows, 17th edn. VSN International, Hemel HempsteadGoogle Scholar
- Sabater-Vilar M, Maas RFM, De Bosschere H, Ducatelle R, Fink-Gremmels J (2004) Patulin produced by an Aspergillus clavatus isolated from feed containing malting residues associated with a lethal neurotoxicosis in cattle. Mycopathologia 158(4):419–426. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11046-005-2877-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Samson RA, Visagie CM, Houbraken J, Hong S-B, Hubka V, Klaassen CHW, Perrone G, Seifert KA, Susca A, Tanney JB, Varga J, Kocsubé S, Szigeti G, Yaguchi T, Frisvad JC (2014) Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus. Stud Mycol 78:141–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2014.07.004 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Swofford DL (2002). PAUP*. phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods). version 4.0b10. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, USA.Google Scholar
- Uhlig S, Botha CJ, Vrålstad T, Rolén E, Miles CO (2009) Indole–diterpenes and ergot alkaloids in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) infected with Claviceps cynodontis from an outbreak of tremors in cattle. J Agric Food Chem 57(23):11112–11119. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf902208w CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar