Mycotoxin Research

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 17–23 | Cite as

Mycotoxins in South African foods: a case study on aflatoxin M1 in milk

  • Michael Francis DuttonEmail author
  • Mulunda Mwanza
  • Suretha de Kock
  • Lishia Daya Khilosia
Original Paper


The contamination of cow’s milk at the farm level with aflatoxin M1 was investigated in South Africa. Samples of feeds, forage, maize and milk were taken at nine dairy farms, and at the same time samples of the processed milk (retail milk) were collected from the respective dairies to which the farms delivered their milk. The feeds were analysed for aflatoxin B1 and the milk samples for aflatoxin M1 using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence detection. All milk samples from the dairy farms were positive for aflatoxin M1, ranging from 0.02 μg/l to 1.5 μg/l. Retail milk was also frequently contaminated with AFM1, at levels of 0.01-3.1 μg/l. High AFB1 levels in feed materials on the farms supplying the raw milk indicate that various sources account for this contamination frequency in milk.


Fungus Mycotoxin Aflatoxin M1 Milk Biotracer 



Thanks are due to the collaborating dairy and farmers who provided samples of milk, their time and advice, without which this study could not have been done, and also to N. de Villiers for the statistics and the University of Johannesburg for financial support.

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Francis Dutton
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mulunda Mwanza
    • 1
  • Suretha de Kock
    • 2
  • Lishia Daya Khilosia
    • 1
  1. 1.Food, Environment and Health Research GroupUniversity of JohannesburgDoornfonteinSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Food TechnologyUniversity of JohannesburgDoornfonteinSouth Africa

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