Complex etiology and pathology of mycotoxic nephropathy in South African pigs

Abstract

Spontaneous nephropathy in pigs seen in South Africa was found to have multi-mycotoxic etiology involving several mycotoxins such as ochratoxin A (OTA), penicillic acid (PA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) in addition to a not yet identified mycotoxin. Contamination levels of OTA were comparatively low (67–75 μg/kg) in contrast to high contamination levels of FB1 (5,289–5,021 μg/kg) and PA (149–251 μg/kg). A heavy contamination with Gibberella fujikuroi var. moniliformis and Penicillium aurantiogriseum complex (mainly P. polonicum) was observed in the fed forages in contrast to the light contamination with Aspergillus ochraceus, P. verrucosum and P. citrinum. The pathomorphological picture of this nephropathy was found to differ from the classical description of mycotoxic porcine nephropathy as originally made in Scandinavia by the extensive vascular changes.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    CEI - Chloroform-Ethyl Acetate-Propan-2-ol (90:5:5, v/v/v);

    TEF - Toluene-Ethyl Acetate-Formic Acid (6:3:1, v/v/v);

    CM - Chloroform-Methanol (95:5, v/v);

    CM2 - Chloroform-Methanol (3:2 ,v/v);

    BWA - Butanol-Water-Acetic acid (12:5:3, v/v/v);

    CtE - Carbon tetrachloride-Ethanol (98:2, v/v);

    ChE - Cyclohexane-Ether (3:1, v/v)

Abbreviations

AFs:

Aflatoxins

BEN:

Balkan endemic nephropathy

CIT:

Citrinin

CA:

Cyclopiazonic acid

DAS:

Diacetoxyscirpenol

DON:

Deoxynivalenol

ERY:

Erythroskyrin

FB1 :

Fumonisin B1

FB2 :

Fumonisin B2

GLI:

Gliotoxin

ISL:

Islanditoxin

KA:

Kojic acid

LUT:

Luteoskyirin

MPN:

Mycotoxic porcine nephropathy

MCN:

Mycotoxic chicken nephropathy

MON:

Moniliformin

MTT:

3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide

OTA:

Ochratoxin A

OTC:

Ochratoxin C

OOS:

Oosporein (isoosporin)

PenA:

Penitrem A

PAT:

Patulin

PA:

Penicillic acid

ppb:

μg/kg

T-2:

T-2 toxin

UM:

Unknown metabolite

XA:

Xanthomegnin

ZEA:

Zearalenone.

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Acknowledgements

This research has been financially supported in part by Marie Curie Outgoing International Fellowship within the 6th European Community Framework Programme, Department of Science and Technology in South Africa, UK Royal Society Joint Project with Central and Eastern Europe, NATO grant and Foundation of Ministry of Science and Education of Bulgaria via five research projects.

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Stoev, S.D., Denev, S., Dutton, M.F. et al. Complex etiology and pathology of mycotoxic nephropathy in South African pigs. Mycotox Res 26, 31–46 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12550-009-0038-7

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Keywords

  • Ochratoxin A
  • Penicillic acid
  • Citrinin
  • Fumonisin B1
  • Mycotoxins
  • Mycotoxic nephropathy
  • Pigs