Palynofacies as a palaeoenvironment and hydrocarbon source potential assessment tool: An example from the Cretaceous of north Western Desert, Egypt

Abstract

Optical examination employing transmitted light and UV-fluorescence microscopy of palynological preparations of eighteen cutting samples representing the Alam El Bueib Member (Hautervian-Barremian), Kharita/lower Bahariya (Cenomanian), and Abu Roash (Turonian-Santonian) formations collected from the Faghur Hj5-1 well, north Western Desert, Egypt, allows the identification of three different palynological assemblages from the studied rock units. These assemblages are mainly non-marine but apparently marine at the base of the Alam El Bueib Member, as evidenced by dinocyst occurrence. In addition, the presence of the Pediastrum and chlorophycean algae ecozone, recognised in previous works, is a good datum for the Abu Roash Formation in the north Western Desert of Egypt. Three associations of palynofacies linked to lithofacies changes are recognised and employed in identification of depositional environments. The Alam El Bueib samples yielded mixed kerogen assemblages of non-marine and marine organic facies. The Kharita/lower Bahariya interval is mostly barren, possibly due to prevailing sandstone lithofacies, except for one sample at its upper part which contains a diverse palynological assemblage. The overlying Abu Roash Formation has a homogeneous kerogen composition comprising mainly granular fluorescent AOM and algae as well as rare palynomorphs. Qualitative as well as quantitative variations of palynofacies allow the reconstruction of the depositional environment. The obtained data have the potential for discriminating spatial and redox status differences and providing also information about terrestrial/freshwater influxes. Results support the model that the Alam El Bueib Member was deposited in a marginal dysoxic-anoxic to distal suboxic-anoxic basin. The Kharita/lower Bahariya unit in the studied well was deposited under marginal dysoxic-anoxic conditions whereas the overlying Abu Roash Formation in a distal suboxic-anoxic basin. Palynofacies results also show that the studied material comprises two distinct facies of kerogen. First, Type II > I kerogen (AOM-rich) is overwhelmingly dominant in the Abu Roash Formation and a few samples from the Alam El Bueib Member which are presumed highly oil-prone, whereas Type III kerogen (phytoclast-rich) is particularly common in the Alam El Bueib Member and Kharita/lower Bahariya unit which are considered gas-prone. Thermal maturity determinations obtained from colour changes of smooth-walled palynomorphs reveal that Alam El Bueib samples belong to immature to mature stages; however, Kharita/lower Bahariya and Abu Roash samples are within the immature phase.

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Acknowledgements

The author is indebted to Prof. Maher El-Soughier (Aswan University) and the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation (EGPC) for providing the samples and well log for this study. Dr. Rainer Brocke is gratefully acknowledged for running the fluorescence investigation of palynofacies samples and Prof. Alan Lord for improving the English of the manuscript. The author wishes to thank Mercedes di Pasquo, an anonymous reviewer and guest-editors Angela Bruch, Dieter Uhl, and Torsten Utescher for their insightful comments and constructive criticism as well as for their invitation to contribute to this special issue.

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The author acknowledges financial support by Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany (EGY-1190326-GF-P).

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Appendix 1

Appendix 1

List of the recorded palynomorph taxa (arranged alphabetically), Faghur Hj5–1 well, Western Desert, Egypt.

I. Spores and pollen

I.I. Pteridophyte and bryophyte spores

Aequitriradites spinulosus (Cookson and Dettmann) Cookson and Dettmann 1961

Ariadnaesporites spp.

Cibotiumspora jurienensis (Balme) Filatoff 1975

Cicatricosisporites spp.

Concavisporites spp.

Concavissimisporites spp.

Crybelosporites pannuceus (Brenner) Srivastava 1977

Crybelosporites spp.

Cyathidites australis Couper 1953

Deltoidospora spp.

Dictyophyllidites spp.

Duplexisporites generalis Deak 1962

Duplexisporites spp.

Gabonisporis vigourouxii Boltenhagen 1967

Gleicheniidites senonicus Ross 1949

Gleicheniidites spp.

Murospora florida (Balme) Pocock 1961

Triplanosporites spp.

Zilvisporis blanensis

I.II. Pollen

Afropollis aff. jardinus Doyle et al. 1982

Afropollis jardinus (Brenner) Doyle et al. 1982

Afropollis kahramanensis Ibrahim and Schrank 1995

Afropollis operculatus Doyle et al. 1982

Afropollis spp.

Araucariacites australis Cookson 1947

Balmeiopsis limbatus (Balme) Archangelsky 1977

Callialasporites sp.

Circulina parva Brenner 1963

Classopollis brasiliensis Herngreen 1975

Classopollis classoides Pflug 1953

Classopollis spp.

Clavatipollenites hughesii Couper 1958

Dicheiropollis etruscus Trevisan 1972

Droseridites senonicus Jardiné and Magloire 1965

Ephedripites jansonii (Pocock) Muller 1968

Ephedripites spp.

Equisetosporites ambiguus (Hedlund) Singh 1983

Eucommiidites sp.

Foveotricolpites giganteus (Jardiné and Magloire 1965) Jan Du Chéne et al. 1978

Foveotricolpites gigantoreticulatus (Jardiné and Magloire 1965) Schrank 1987

Inaperturopollenites spp.

Integritetradites porosus Schrank and Mahmoud 2000

Nyssapollenites sp.

Proteacidites sp.

Retimonocolpites spp.

Stellatopollis spp.

Tucanopollis crisopolensis Regali 1989

II.Green and blue-green algae

Botryococcus spp.

Pediastrum spp.

Scenedesmus spp.

Tasmanites spp.

III. Miscellaneous

Microforaminiferal test linings

IV. Dinoflagellate cysts

Circulodinium spp.

Coronifera oceanica (Cookson and Eisenack) May 1980

Cribroperidinium edwardsii (Cookson and Eisenack) Davey 1969

Cribroperidinium spp.

Cribroperidinum orthoceras (Eisenack) Davey 1969

Florentinia spp.

Odontochitina operculata Deflandre and Cookson 1955

Oligosphaeridium spp.

Spiniferites spp.

Subtilisphaera spp.

Systematophora spp.

Trichodinium castanea (Deflandre) Clarke and Verdier 1967

Xiphophoridium alatum (Cookson and Eisenack) Sarjeant 1966

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El Atfy, H. Palynofacies as a palaeoenvironment and hydrocarbon source potential assessment tool: An example from the Cretaceous of north Western Desert, Egypt. Palaeobio Palaeoenv 101, 35–50 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12549-020-00474-9

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Keywords

  • Palynology
  • Palynofacies
  • Cretaceous
  • North Western Desert
  • Egypt