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Taxonomy, palaeoecology and stratigraphy of the middle Miocene mollusk fauna from the Gračanica coal pit near Bugojno in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Abstract

During the early and middle Miocene, the Dinarides Lake System (DLS) was a major hotspot of freshwater mollusk diversity in southeastern Europe. The numerous intramontane lake basins, originating by combined effects of tectonic subsidence and humid climate, accumulated thick lacustrine successions. Diagenetic overprint and leaching of these carbonate-rich deposits have facilitated insights to faunal contents for only a few basins up to the present. We contribute to filling this gap by documenting for the first time a mollusk fauna from the Bugojno Basin in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The fauna originates from a coal-bearing succession representing a gradual flooding of the coastal wetlands followed upwards by the establishment of perennial lacustrine settings in the basin. Our taxonomic analyses documents 17 gastropod and two bivalve species. New to science are IIllyricocongeria forcakovici nov. sp., Prososthenia krijgsmani nov. sp. and Bania goehlichae nov. sp. The palaeoecological analysis based on quantified samples shows distinct shifts in mollusk composition and abundance. The terrestrial taxa are restricted to the coal-bearing interval of the section; melanopsids, neritids and hydrobiids are abundant in deltaic and littoral settings, whereas bivalves are frequent in littoral and sublittoral environments. In line with previous results, which have evidenced a high degree of intralacustrine radiation in the DLS, the Lake Bugojno fauna shows a low to moderate level of similarity to other DLS faunas. The dissimilarity may partly also result from its younger age as suggested by the presence or absence of regional biostratigraphic marker species.

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Abbreviations

Ada:

Angle of the junction between dorsal and anterior shell margins

Adp:

Angle of the junction between dorsal and posterior shell margins

AV:

Articulated valves

C :

Convexity of the single valve

H :

Shell height

L :

Shell length

La:

Length of the anterior shell part

Lt:

Length of the diagonal thread/ridge

LV:

Left valve

RV:

Right valve

Ts:

(Distal) shell thickness

*:

Fragmented

BU:

Bugojno

d:

Debris

LS:

Lateral section

M:

Mollusk

yymm:

Year and month of sampling

NHMW:

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien

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Acknowledgements

Our thanks go to the authorities of the Gračanica coal mine for permission to work in the pit. We are particularly grateful to Dževad Forčaković, Hamdija Puljarga and Branko Grabovac from the mine’s exploration department for guiding us in the field and for providing our work in the coal pit as pleasant as possible. We appreciate the help of Medina Mandic with the field work. Thanks go also to Ursula Göhlich (NHMW) for collecting the BU1708 samples. Finally, we thank Hazim Hrvatović (Federal Geological Survey) for his continued support of our studies in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The constructive reviews by Vitaliy Anistratenko (National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev) and by an anonymous reviewer improved an earlier draft of the manuscript.

Funding

The field work was supported by the Austrian FWF Project P18519-B17. T.A.N. was supported by an Alexander-von-Humboldt Scholarship and a DFG grant (project no. NE 2268/2-1).

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Mandic, O., Harzhauser, M. & Neubauer, T.A. Taxonomy, palaeoecology and stratigraphy of the middle Miocene mollusk fauna from the Gračanica coal pit near Bugojno in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Palaeobio Palaeoenv 100, 519–549 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12549-020-00423-6

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Keywords

  • Long-lived lakes
  • Gastropoda
  • Bivalvia
  • Environmental change
  • Dinarides Lake System
  • Southeastern Europe