Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments

, Volume 98, Issue 3, pp 385–401 | Cite as

Permian woods with preserved primary structures from the southeast of Brazil (Irati Formation, Paraná basin)

  • Rafael Souza Faria
  • Fresia Ricardi-Branco
  • Rosemarie Rohn
  • Marcelo Adorna Fernandes
  • Isabel Christiano-De-Souza
Original Paper


This research described fossil woods with preserved pith and primary xylem from strata of the Irati Formation (Artinskian) of the Paraná Basin (southeastern Brazil). The three specimens studied are all related to the Coniferales and include the following taxa: Solenopitys paulistana Kräusel, Atlanticoxylon ibiratinum n. sp. and Abietopitys sp. Kräusel. Solenopitys paulistana represents a species with a solid, heterocellular pith with a peripheral secretory canal system. Atlanticoxylon ibiratinum n. sp. has a lacunose, heterocelular pith with “nests” of sclereids, with a central secretory canal and a peripheral system of canals. Abietopitys sp. has a solid, lobed, homocelular pith associated with a secondary xylem containing cross-fields with non-contiguous pits (abietoid vascular rays). Xeromorphic features observed in these specimens, such as a pith with groups of sclereids and false growth rings, may be related to the depositional environment of the Irati Formation. The specific factor triggering the xeromorphy has not yet been determined, but the present study corroborates clearly the sedimentary evidence of dry conditions during the deposition of the Irati Formation, as seen in the 30-m-thick carbonate layer extending through four South American countries.


Fossil wood Coniferales Xeromorphy Irati Formation Permian 



The authors would like to acknowledge the collaboration with Margarita Ricardi Torres (Botanical Garden Center, ULA, Mérida, Venezuela, in memoriam), Alexandra Crisafulli (Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Corrientes, Argentina) and an anonymous reviewer for the significantly improved quality of the paper.

Funding information

The authors would like to thank the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and the Foundation for the Support of Research in the State of São Paulo (FAPESP) for the financial supports provided [(FAPESP Process 2009/10547-1 “Paleophytogeography and fossil woods from Paraná Basin during late Paleozoic”) and (FAPESP 2013/11563-6 “Multi-source data integration for paleobotanical analysis of the Parana Basin, during Carboniferous and Permian times”)].

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departament of Geology and Natural Resources, Institure of Geosciences, University of CampinasCampinasBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Applied GeologyUniversity of the State of São Paulo - Unesp Rio ClaroRio ClaroBrazil
  3. 3.Departament of Ecology and Evolutive BiologyFederal University of São CarlosSão CarlosBrazil

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