Skip to main content

The fossil record of the Neogene Carnivore Mammals from Spain

Abstract

Carnivore mammals (Carnivora, Mammalia) constitute a significant component of the Spanish Neogene faunas, not so much due to their fossil abundance, which is generally low, but rather because of their high degree of taxonomic diversity. We assessed their evolutionary dynamics from the fossil record of Iberian carnivores using per-taxon rates of origination, extinctions and turnover combined with a recent approach for removing the sampling signal from diversity curves. Our analysis interval covers most of the Neogene and the early Pleistocene (MN 2 to MN 17), spanning from around 21.6 to 1.8 Ma. We identified six carnivore associations by applying factor analysis to our data. The diversification pattern shows four origination episodes: MN4, MN7/8, MN12 and MN14. We also identified four extinction episodes. The first two are coincident with the onset of the MN 4 and MN7/8 faunas. The last two extinction episodes take place during MN9, coinciding with the Mid Vallesian Crisis (MVC), and MN13, co-occurring with the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). Two major turnover pulses are recognised during MN4 and MN14, the turnover rate remaining moderately high between MN6 and MN13. We suggest that the pattern observed might be primarily triggered by the biogeographic and climatic shifts that took place during the Neogene.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  • Abella, J., Montoya, P., & Morales, J. (2011). A new species of Agriarctos (Ailuropodinae, Ursidae, Carnivora) in the locality of Nombrevilla 2 (Zaragoza, Spain). Estudios Geológicos, 67, 187–191.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Abella, J., Alba, D. M., Robles, J. M., Valenciano, A., Rotgers, C., Carmona, R., et al. (2013). Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., the oldest member of the giant panda clade. PLoS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048985.

    Google Scholar 

  • Abella, J., Montoya, P., & Morales, J. (2014). Paleodiversity of the Superfamily Ursoidea (Carnivora, Mammalia) in the Spanish Neogene, related to environmental changes. Journal of Iberian Geology, 40, 11–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Agustí, J., & Moyà-Solà, S. (1990). Mammal extinctions in the Vallesian Upper Miocene. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, 30, 425–432.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Agustí, J., Cabrera, L., Garcés, M., & Llenas, M. (1999). Mammal turnover and global climate change in the late Miocene terrestrial record of the Vallès-Penedès Basin (NE Spain). In J. Agustí, L. Rook, & P. Andrews (Eds.), Hominoid Evolution and climatic change in Europe (The Evolution of Neogene Terrestrial Ecosystems in Europe, Vol. 1, pp. 390–412). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Agustí, J., Cabrera, L., Garcés, M., Krijgsman, W., Oms, O., & Parés, J. M. (2001). A calibrated mammal scale for the Neogene of western Europe. State of the art. Earth Science Reviews, 52, 247–260.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alba, D. M., Agustí, J., & Moyà-Solà, S. (2001). Completeness of the mammalian fossil record in the Iberian Neogene. Paleobiology, 27, 79–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alberdi, M. T., Azanza, B., Cerdeño, E., & Prado, J. L. (1997). Similarity relationship between mammal faunas and biochronology from latest Miocene to Pleistocene in the western Mediterranean area. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 90, 115–132.

    Google Scholar 

  • Alberdi, M. T., Prado, J. L., Cerdeño, E., & Azanza, B. (2011). How did past environmental change affect carnivore diversity and home-range-size in Spain? In S. S. Young & S. E. Silvern (Eds.), International perspectives on global environmental change (pp. 106–120). Rijeka: INTECH.

    Google Scholar 

  • Alcalá, L. (1994). Macromamíferos neógenos de la fosa de Alfambra-Teruel. Dissertation. Instituto de Estudios Turolense-Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC.

  • Alcalá, L., Alonso-Zarza, A. M., Álvarez-Sierra, M. A., Azanza, B., Calvo, J. P., Cañaveras, J. C., et al. (2000). El registro faunístico y sedimentario de las cuencas de Calatayud-Daroca y Teruel. Evolución paleoambiental y paleoclimática durante el Neógeno. Revista de la Sociedad Geológica de España, 13, 323–343.

    Google Scholar 

  • Antón, M., Turner, A., Salesa, M. J., & Morales, J. (2006). A complete skull of Chasmaporthetes lunensis (Carnivora: Hyaenidae) from the Spanish Pliocene site of La Puebla de Valverde (Teruel). Estudios Geológicos, 62, 375–388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Azanza, B., Alberdi, M. T., Cerdeño, E., & Prado, J. L. (1997). Biochronology from latest Miocene to middle Pleistocene in the western Mediterranean area. A multivariate approach. Mémoires et Travaux de l´Institut de Montpellier, 21, 567–574.

    Google Scholar 

  • Azanza, B., Alberdi, M. T., & Prado, J. L. (2000). Large mammal turnover pulses correlated with latest Neogene glacial trends in the northwestern Mediterranean región. In M. B. Hart (Ed.), Climates: Past and present (pp. 161–170). London: Geological Society. Special publication.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bruijn, H. de., Daams, R., Daxner-Höck, G., Fahlbusch, V., Ginsburg, L., Mein, P., et al. (1992). Report of the RCMNS working group on fossil mammals Reisenberg 1990. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 26, 65–118.

  • Calvo, J. P., Daams, R., Morales, J., López-Martínez, N., Agustí, J., Anadón, P., et al. (1993). Up-to-date Spanish continental Neogene synthesis and Paleoclimatic interpretation. Revista de la Sociedad Geológica de España, 6, 29–40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Calvo, J. P., Pozo, M., Silva, P. G., & Morales, J. (2013). Pattern of sedimentary infilling of fossil mammals traps formed in pseudokarst at Cerro de los Batallones, Madrid Basin, central Spain. Sedimentology, 60, 1681–1708.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Casanovas-Vilar, I., García-Paredes, I., Alba, D. M., Hoek Ostende, L. W. van den, & Moyà-Solà, S. (2010). The European Far West: Miocene mammal isolation, diversity and turnover in the Iberian peninsula. Journal of Biogeography, 37, 1079–1093.

  • Casanovas-Vilar, I., Hoek Ostende, L. W. van den, Furió, M., & Madern, P. A. (2014). The range and extent of the Vallesian crisis (late Miocene): new prospects based on the micromammal record from the Vallès-Penedès basin (Catalonia, Spain). Journal of Iberian Geology, 40, 29–48.

  • Cerdeño, E., & Ginsburg, L. (1988). Les Tapiridae (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) de l’Oligocène et du Miocène inférieur européens. Annales de Paléontologie, 74, 71–96.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cerdeño, E., & Iñigo, C. (1997). Hispanotherium matritense (Rhinocerotidae) de la ciudad de Madrid (España) y su relación con el paleoambiente del Aragoniense medio (Mioceno Medio). Revista Española de Paleontología, 12, 80–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cerdeño, E., & Nieto, M. (1995). Changes in western european rhinocerotidae related to climatic variations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 114, 325–338.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, K. M., Finney, S., & Gibbard, P. L. (2013). International Commission on Stratigraphy. http://www.stratigraphy.org/ICSchart/ChronostratChart2013-01.pdf. January, 2013.

  • Crusafont, M. P. (1950). El primer representante del género Canis en el Pontiense euroasiático (Canis cipio nova sp.). Boletín Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural (Geología), 48, 43–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crusafont, M. P. (1952). Los jiráfidos fósiles de España. Barcelona: CSIC.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crusafont, M. P., & Kurtén, B. (1976). Bears and bear-dogs from the Vallesian of the Vallés-Penedés basin, Spain. Acta Zoologica Fennica, 144, 1–22.

    Google Scholar 

  • Daams, R., Álvarez-Sierra, M. A., van der Meulen, A., & Peláez-Campomanes, P. (1997). Los micromamíferos como indicadores de paleoclimas y evolución de las cuencas continentales. In E. Aguirre, J. Morales, & D. Soria (Eds.), Registros fósiles e Historia de la Tierra (pp. 281–296). Madrid: Editorial Complutense.

    Google Scholar 

  • Daams, R., Alcalá, L., Álvarez-Sierra, M. A., Azanza, B., van Dam, J., Meulen, A. J. van der, Morales, J., Nieto, M., Peláez-Campomanes, P., & Soria, D. (1998). A stratigraphical framework for Miocene (MN4-MN13) continental sediments of central Spain. Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences. Paris, 327, 625–631.

  • Daams, R., Meulen, A. van der, Peláez-Campomanes, P., & Álvarez-Sierra, M. A. (1999). Trends in rodent assemblages from the Aragonian (early-middle Miocene) of the Calatayud-Daroca Basin, Aragón, Spain. In J. Agustí, L. Rook, & P. Andrews (Eds.), Hominoid evolution and climatic change in Europe (The Evolution of Neogene Terrestrial Ecosystems in Europe, Vol. 1, pp. 390–412). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Dam, J. A. van, (2006). Geographic and temporal patterns in the late Neogene 12-3 Ma aridification of Europe: The use of small mammals as paleoprecipitation proxies. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 238, 190–218.

  • Dam, J. A. van, Abdul Aziz, H., Álvarez Sierra, M. A., Hilgen, F. J., van den Hoek Ostende, L. W., Lourens, L. J., et al. (2006). Long-period astronomical forcing of mammal turnover. Nature, 443, 687–691.

  • Dam, J. A. van, Krijgsman, W., Abels, H. A., Álvarez-Sierra, M. A., García-Paredes, I., López-Guerrero, P., et al. (2014). Updated chronology for middle to late Miocene mammal sites of the daroca area (calatayud-montalbán basin, Spain). Geobios, 47, 325–334.

  • Dehm, R. (1950). Die Raubtiere aus dem Mittel-Miocän (Burdigalium) von Wintershof-West bei Eichstätt in Bayern. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematischnaturwissenschaftliche Klasse NF, 58, 1–141.

    Google Scholar 

  • Domingo, M. S., Alberdi, M. T., & Azanza, B. (2007). A new quantitative biochronological ordination for the Upper Neogene mammalian localities of Spain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 255, 361–376.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Domingo, L., Cuevas-González, J., Grimes, S. T., Hernández Fernández, M., & López-Martínez, N. (2009). Multiproxy reconstruction of the paleoclimate and paleoenvironment of the Middle Miocene Somosaguas site (Madrid, Spain) using herbivore tooth enamel. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 272, 53–68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Domingo, L., Koch, P. L., Grimes, S. T., Morales, J., & López-Martínez, N. (2012). Isotopic paleoecology of mammals and the middle Miocene cooling event in the Madrid basin (Spain). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 339, 98–113.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Domingo, M. S., Alberdi, M. T., Azanza, B., Silva, P. G., & Morales, J. (2013a). Origin of an assemblage massively dominated by carnivorans from the Miocene of Spain. PLoS ONE, 8(5), e63046.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Domingo, L., Koch, P. L., Hernández Fernández, M., Fox, D. L., Domingo, M. S., & Alberdi, M. T. (2013b). Late neogene and early Quaternary paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions in southwestern Europe: isotopic analyses on mammalian taxa. PLoS ONE, 8(5), 1–15.

    Google Scholar 

  • Domingo, M. S., Badgley, C., Azanza, B., DeMiguel, D., & Alberdi, M. T. (2014). Diversification of mammals from the Miocene of Spain. Paleobiology, 40, 197–221.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fejfar, O., & Schmidt-Kittler, N. (1997). Sivanasua viverroides (Chlosser, 1916) aus der Untermiozänen Spaltenfüllung Rothenstein 1/13. Münchner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, 34, 93–110.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fejfar, O., Dvorák, Z., & Kadlecová, E. (2003). New record of Early Miocene (MN3a) mammals in the open brown coal pit Merkur, North Bohemia, Czech Republic. In J. W. F. Reumer & W. Wessels (Eds.), Distribution and migration of Tertiary mammals in Eurasia (pp. 163–182). A volume in honour of Hans de Bruijn Deinsea, 10.

  • Figueirido, B., Janis, C. M., Pérez-Claros, J. A., De Renzi, M., & Palmqvist, P. (2012). Cenozoic climate change influences mammalian evolutionary dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 722–727.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Finarelli, J. A., & Badgley, C. (2010). Diversity dynamics of Miocene mammals in relation to the history of tectonism and climate. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 277, 2721–2726.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Foote, M. (2000). Origination and extinction components of taxonomic diversity: general problems. Paleobiology, 26(4), 74–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Foote, M. (2003). Origination and extinction through the Phanerozoic: a new approach. The Journal of Geology, 111, 125–148.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fraile, S., Pérez, B., De Miguel, I., & Morales, J. (1997). Revisión de los carnívoros presentes en los yacimientos del Neógeno español. In J. P. Calvo & J. Morales (Eds.), Avances en el conocimiento del Terciario Ibérico (pp. 77–80). Madrid: Universidad Complutense-CSIC.

    Google Scholar 

  • Friscia, A. R., Valkenburgh, B. van, & Biknevicius, A. R. (2006). An ecomorphological analysis of extant small carnivorans. Journal of Zoology, 272, 82–100.

  • Garcés, M., Krijgsman, W., Peláez-Campomanes, P., Álvarez Sierra, M. A., & Daams, R. (2003). Hipparion dispersal in Europe: magnetostratigraphic constraints from the Daroca area (Spain). Coloquios de Paleontología, 1, 171–178.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaubert, P. H., Machordom, A., Morales, A., López-Bao, J. V., Veron, G., Amin, M., et al. (2011). Comparative phylogeography of two African carnivorans presumably introduced into Europe: disentangling natural versus human-mediated dispersal across the strait of Gibraltar. Journal of Biography, 38, 341–358.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gibert, L., Scott, G. R., Montoya, P., Ruiz-Sánchez, F. J., Morales, J., Luque, L., et al. (2013). Evidence for an African-Iberian mammal dispersal during the pre-evaporitic Messinian. Geology, 41, 691–694.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ginsburg, L. (1980). Hyainailouros sulzeri, mammifère créodonte du Miocene d´Europe. Annales de Paléontologie, 66, 19–73.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ginsburg, L. (1999). Order Carnivora. In G. E. Rössner & K. Heissig (Eds.), Land mammals of Europe (pp. 109–148). München: Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil.

  • Ginsburg, L., & Morales, J. (1992). Contribution à la connaissance des Mustélidés (Carnivora, Mammalia) du Miocéne d’Europe Trochictis et Ischyrictis, genres affines et genres nouveaux. Comptes Rendus de l´Académie des Sciences, 325, 111–116.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ginsburg, L., & Morales, J. (1998). Les Hemicyoninae (Ursidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) et les formes apparentées du Miocène inférieur et moyen d’Europe occidentale. Annales de Paléontologie, 84, 71–123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ginsburg, L., Morales, J., & Soria, D. (1981). Nuevos datos sobre los carnívoros de Los Valles de Fuentidueña (Segovia). Estudios Geológicos, 37, 383–415.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ginsburg, L., Morales, J., Soria, D., & Herraez, E. (1997). Découverte d´une forme ancestrale du petit panda dans le Miocène moyen de Madrid (Espagne). Comptes Rendus de l´Académie des Sciences, Paris, 325, 447–451.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gómez Cano, A. R., Álvarez-Sierra, M. A., & Hernández Fernández, M. (2011). Biogeographic provincialism in rodent faunas from the Iberoccitanian Region (southwestern europe) generates severe diachrony within the Mammalian Neogene (MN) biochronologic scale during the Late Miocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 307, 193–204.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gómez Cano, A. R., Cantalapiedra, J. L., Mesa, A., Bofarull, A. M., & Hernández Fernández, M. (2013). Global climate changes drive ecological specialization of mammal faunas: trends in rodent assemblages from the Iberian Plio-Pleistocene. BMC Evolutionary Biology. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-94.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gómez Cano, A. R., Cantalapiedra, J. L., Álvarez-Sierra, M. A., & Hernández Fernández, M. (2014). A macroecological glance at the structure of late Miocene rodent assemblages from Southwest Europe. Scientific Reports. doi:10.1038/srep06557.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hernández Fernández, M., Cárdaba, J. A., Cuevas-González, J., Fesharaki, O., Salesa, M. J., Corrales, B., et al. (2006). Los yacimientos de vertebrados del Mioceno medio de Somosaguas (Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid): implicaciones paleoambientales y paleoclimaticas. Estudios Geológicos, 62, 263–294.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hernández Fernández, M., Álvarez Sierra, M. A., & Peláez-Campomanes, P. (2007). Bioclimatic analysis of rodent palaeofaunas reveals severe climatic changes in Southwestern Europe during the Plio-Pleistocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 251, 500–526.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hordijk, K., Meulen, A. van der, & Peláez-Campomanes, P. (2010). Impact of middle Miocene climate change on small evolution and community composition in north-eastern Central Spain. Geologica Ultraiectina, 333, 193–224.

  • Hunt, R. M. J. R. (2004). Global climate and the evolution of large mammalian carnivores during the later Cenozoic in North America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 285, 139–156.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lloyd, G. T. (2012). A refined modelling approach to assess the influence of sampling on palaeobiodiversity curves: new support for declining Cretaceous dinosaur richness. Biology Letters, 8, 123–126.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • López-Martínez, N. (1989). Revisión sistemática y biostratigráfica de los Lagomorpha (Mammalia) del Terciario y Cuaternario de España. Memorias del Museo Paleontológico de la Universidad de Zaragoza, 3, 1–350.

    Google Scholar 

  • Made, J. van. der., Montoya, P., & Morales, J. (2006). Late Miocene turnover in the Spanish mammal record in a wider contex. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, 238, 228–246.

  • Madurell-Malapeira, J., Ros-Montoya, S., Espigares, M. P., Alba, D. M., & Aurell-Garrido, J. (2014). Villafranchian large mammals from the Iberian Peninsula: paleobiogeography, paleoecology and dispersal events. Journal of Iberian Geology, 40, 167–178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marigó, J., Susanna, I., Minwer-Barakat, R., Madurell-Malapeira, J., Moyà-Solà, S., Casanovas-Vilar, I., et al. (2014). The primate fossil record in the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Iberian Geology, 40, 157–166.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meulen, A. J. van. der., & Daams, R. (1992). Evolution of early-middle Miocene rodent faunas in relation to long-term palaeoenvironment changes. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 93, 227–253.

  • Meulen, A. J. van der, Pélaez-Campomanes, P., & Levin, S. A. (2005). Age estructure, residents, and transients of Miocene rodent communities. The American Naturalist, 165, 108–125.

  • Meulen, A. J. van der, García-Paredes, I., Álvarez-Sierra, M. A., van den Hoek Ostende, L. W., Hordijk, K., Oliver, A., et al. (2011). Biostratigraphy or biochronology? Lessons from the Early and Middle Miocene small Mammal Events in Europe. Geobios, 44, 309–321.

  • Meulen, A. J. van der, García-Paredes, I., Álvarez-Sierra, M. A., van den Hoek Ostende, L. W., Hordijk, K., Oliver, A., et al. (2012). Updated Aragonian biostratigraphy: Small Mammal distribution and its implications for the Miocene European Chronology. Geologica Acta, 10, 159–179.

  • Montoya, P., Ginsburg, L., Alberdi, M. T., Van der Made, J., Morales, J., & Soria, M. D. (2006). Fossil large mammals from the early Pliocene locality of Alcoy (Alicante, Spain) and their importance in biostratigraphy. Geodiversitas, 28, 137–173.

    Google Scholar 

  • Montoya, P., Morales, J., & Abella, J. (2009). Eucyon debonisi n. sp., a new Canidae (Mammalia, Carnivora) from the latest Miocene of Venta del Moro (Valencia, Spain). Geodiversitas, 31, 709–722.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morales, J. (1996). El registro fósil de los carnívoros Ibéricos. In R. García-Perea, R. A. Baquero, R. Fernández-Salvador & J. Gisbert (Eds.), Carnívoros, evolución, ecología y conservación (pp. 117–135). CSIC-MNCN-Sociedad Española para la Conservación de los mamíferos

  • Morales, J., Pickford, M., Soria, D., & Fraile, S. (1998). New carnivores from the basal middle Miocene of Arrisdrift, Namibia. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 91, 27–40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morales, J., Nieto, M., Kholer, M., & Moyà-Solà, S. (1999). Large mammals from the Vallesian of Spain. In J. Agustí, L. Rook, & P. Andrews (Eds.), Hominoid evolution and climatic change in Europe (The evolution of Neogene terrestrial ecosystems in Europe, Vol. 1, pp. 390–412). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Morales, J., Salesa, M. J., Pickford, M., & Soria, D. (2001). A new tribe, new genus and two new species of Barbourofelinae (Felidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) from the Early Miocene of East Africa and Spain. Transations of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 92, 97–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morales, J., Soria, D., Montoya, P., Pérez, B., & Salesa, M. J. (2003). Caracal depereti nov. sp. y Felis aff. silvestris del Plioceno inferior de Layna (Soria, España). Estudios Geológicos, 59, 229–247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morales, J., Peláez-Campomanes, P., Abella, J., Montoya, P., Ruiz, F. J., Gibert, L., et al. (2013). The Ventian mammal age (Latest Miocene): present state. Spanish Journal of Palaeontology, 28, 149–160.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moyà-Solà, S., & Agustí, J. (1987). The Vallesian in the type area (Vallès–Penedès, Barcelona, Spain). Annals of the Hungarian Geological Institute, 70, 93–99.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peigné, S., Salesa, M. J., Antón, M., & Morales, J. (2008). A new Amphicyonine (Carnivora: Amphicyonidae) from the Late Miocene of Batallones-1 (Madrid, Spain). Paleontology, 51, 943–965.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peláez-Campomanes, P., Morales, J., Álvarez Sierra, M. A., Azanza, B., Fraile, S., García Paredes, I., et al. (2003). Updated biochronology of the Miocene mammal faunas from the Madrid basin (Spain). In J. W. F. Reumer & W. Wessels (Eds.), Distribution and migration of Tertiary mammals in Eurasia. A volume in honour of Hans De Bruijn Deinsea, 10, 431--441.

  • Pickford, M., & Morales, J. (1994). Biostratigraphy and palaeobiogeography of East Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 112, 297–322.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pons, J., & Crusafont, M. (1978). El Canis cipio Crusafont 1950, comparación con los cánidos del Plioceno y Pleistoceno europeo. Acta Geologica Hispánica, 13, 133–136.

    Google Scholar 

  • Prado, J. L., Azanza, B., Cantalapiedra, J. L., & Alberdi, M. T. (2014). Plio-pleistocene fossil record of large predators in Iberia: diversity, home range and climatic change. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 399, 404–413.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • R Development Core team. (2015). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Viena, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robles, J. M., Alba, D. M., Fortuny, J., De Esteban-Trivigno, S., Rotgers, C., Balaguer, J., et al. (2013). New craniodental remains of the barbourofelid Albanosmilus jourdani (Filhol, 1883) from the Miocene of the Vallès-Penedès (NE Iberian Peninsula) and the phylogeny of the Barbourofelini. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 11, 993–1022.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salesa, M. J., Sánchez, I. M., & Morales, J. (2004). Presence of Asian Horse Sinohippus in the Miocene of Europe. Acta Paleontologica Polonica, 49, 189–196.

    Google Scholar 

  • Salesa, M. J., Antón, M., Turner, A., Alcalá, L., Montoya, P., & Morales, J. (2010). Systematic Revision of the late Miocene sabre-Toothed felid Paramachaerodus in Spain. Palaeontology, 53, 1369–1391.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sanisidro, O., Alberdi, M. T., & Morales, J. (2012). The first complete skull of the Hispanotherium matritense (Prado, 1864) (Perissodactyla, Rhinocerotidae) from the middle Miocene of the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 32, 446–455.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sepkoski, J. J. (1981). A factor analytic description of the Phanerozoic marine fossil record. Paleobiology, 7, 36–53.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, A. B., & McGowan, A. J. (2011). The ties linking rock and fossil records and why they are important for palaeobiodiversity studies. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 358, 1–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Soria, D. (1980). Percrocuta y Adcrocuta (Hyaenidae, Mammalia) en el Mioceno superior del área de Teruel. Estudios Geológicos, 36, 143–162.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, M. E. (1989). Locomotor adaptations by carnivores. In J. L. Gittleman (Ed.), Carnivore behavior, ecology, and evolution (pp. 382–409). Ithaca: Cornell University Press

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Valen, L. M. van (1984). A resetting of Phanerozoic community evolution. Nature, 307, 50–52.

  • Valkenburgh, B. van (1985). Locomotor diversity within past and present guilds of large predatory mammals. Paleobiology, 11, 406–428.

  • Valkenburgh, B. van (1987). Skeletal indicators of locomotor behavior in living and extinct carnivores. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 7, 162–182.

  • Valkenburgh, B. van (1988). Trophic diversity in past and present guilds of large predatory mammals. Paleobiology, 14, 155–173.

  • Valkenburgh, B. van (1989). Carnivore dental adaptations and diet: a study of trophic diversity within guilds. In J. L. Gittleman (Ed.), Carnivore behavior, ecology, and evolution (pp. 410–436). Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

  • Zachos, J., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E., & Billups, K. (2001). Trends, rhythms and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science, 292, 686–693.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zachos, J. C., Dickens, G. R., & Zeebe, R. E. (2008). An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse warming and carboncycle dynamics. Nature, 451, 279–283.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We first wish to thank the editors for the invitation to participate in this tribute to Prof. Albert van der Meulen. We also wish to thank Dr. Lars van den Hoek Ostende, Dr. Pablo Peláez-Campomanes, Dr. Martin Sabol, as well as an anonymous reviewer and Dr. Sinje Weber for their useful comments on the manuscripts. Thanks are due to Cormac de Brun for the manuscript revision. The authors are also grateful to Project CGL2011-25754, MINECO (Spanish Government) and to Research Group BSCH-UCM 910607. J.A. would like to thank the “Proyecto Prometeo” of the “Secretaria de Educación Superior, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación”, Republic of Ecuador. A.V. is a trainee researcher of CSIC program JAE-PRE-CP2011 (CSIC program “Junta para la ampliación de estudios”), co-funded by the European Social Fund. D.H. is a trainee researcher of the FPU 2013 program granted by the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jorge Morales.

Additional information

This article is a contribution to the special issue "Old worlds, new ideas. A tribute to Albert van der Meulen".

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Figure 1

Cenozoic basins from the Iberian Peninsula with carnivore fossil sites used in this study (PDF 2300 kb)

Table 1

Distribution of genera per MN zones. 1 = Creodonta; 2 = Amphicyonidae; 3 = Canidae; 4 = Ailuridae; 5 = Hemicyonidae; 6 = Ursidae; 7 = Mustelidae; 8 = Mephitidae; 9 = Herpestidae + Viverridae; 10 = Hyaenidae + Percrocutidae; 11 = Barbourofelidae; 12 = Felidae (XLSX 50.3 kb)

ESM 3

(XLSX 55 kb)

ESM 4

(DOCX 38.2 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Morales, J., Cantalapiedra, J.L., Valenciano, A. et al. The fossil record of the Neogene Carnivore Mammals from Spain. Palaeobio Palaeoenv 95, 373–386 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12549-015-0206-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12549-015-0206-z

Keywords

  • Spain
  • Neogene
  • Carnivore
  • Fossil record
  • Diversity