Advertisement

Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments

, Volume 94, Issue 4, pp 495–528 | Cite as

Late Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian) brackish to freshwater habitats at a fluvial-dominated delta plain (Seinstedt, Lower Saxony, Germany)

  • Gregor BarthEmail author
  • Matthias Franz
  • Carmen Heunisch
  • Evelyn Kustatscher
  • Detlev Thies
  • Jürgen Vespermann
  • Markus Wolfgramm
Original Paper

Abstract

The historic Late Triassic outcrops at Fuchsberg and Langenberg near Seinstedt (Lower Saxony, Germany) are constrained to the Norian/Rhaetian boundary interval by means of conchostracan and palynomorph biostratigraphy. A comprehensive revision revealed a fluvial-dominated delta plain that formed in response to the successive transgression of the ‘Rhaetian Sea’ and received siliciclastics from southern source areas. At Fuchsberg and Langenberg, the distal lower delta plain is exposed and brackish subaqueous delta plain wetlands, mouthbar/distributary channel complexes and interdistributary bay subenvironments are reconstructed. Delta formation was controlled by bifurcation of distributary channels and avulsion of delta lobes. A diverse ecosystem is documented: a rich invertebrate fauna of limulids (1 taxon), insects (at least 20 taxa of 9 orders), malacostracans and conchostracans (several taxa) and a vertebrate fauna of amphibians (at least 1 taxon), sharks (9 taxa) and osteichthyan fishes (at least 6 taxa). In particular, fossiliferous interdistributary bay lithologies detail trophic systems of autochthonous subaqueous and parautochthonous riparian habitats. Abundant remnants of cycadophytes, ferns, horsetails and large vertebrates from Fuchsberg and adjacent outcrops of the Seinstedt area enable the reconstruction of vegetated upstream environments at the upper delta plain and floodplain.

Keywords

Distributary channel Mouth bar Interdistributary bay Tempestite Hirmeriella muensteri Riparian habitat 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge field assistance of K. Rauppach (Neubrandenburg), J. Solcher (Egestorf) and J. Zimmermann (Freiberg), and K. Bauer (Bozen) for photographing the macroflora from Seinstedt. G.B. thanks N. Hauschke from Geological and Palaeontological Collections, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg for making the Fuchsberg and Langenberg invertebrate material available, and E.K. thanks C. Hiller, M. Ruhl and B. Mohr from Museum für Naturkunde–Leibnitz Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity at Humboldt University Berlin for making the Seinstedt material available. This study was funded by ‘Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit’ (FKZ 0325285), the project ‘The biodiversity of the Late Permian floras in the German Zechstein Basin’ (DE-TAF-3195) and supported by SYNTHESYS (EC Research Infrastructure Action, Program FP7 ‘Structuring the European Research Area’). E.K. thanks J.H.A. Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert (University of Leiden and Utrecht) for sharing her experience on the Late Triassic floras of Germany and acknowledges financial support from the Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation (3.3-ITA/1141759STP). D.T. and J.V. thank J. Mutterlose (Bochum) for preparation of SEM pictures of fish teeth. We acknowledge J. Ansorge (Horst) for discussions, F. Spindler (Freiberg, Germany) for drawing the reconstructions and C. Brauckmann (Clausthal-Zellerfeld) and N. Hauschke (Halle/Saale) for careful reviews.

References

  1. Abbink OA (1998) Palynological identification in the Jurassic of the North Sea region. LPP Contrib Ser 8:1Google Scholar
  2. Abbink OA, van Konijnenburg-van Cittert JHA, Visscher H (2004a) A sporomorph ecogroup model for the northwest European Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous I: Concepts and framework. Netherl J Geosc 83:17–31Google Scholar
  3. Abbink OA, van Konijnenburg-van Cittert JHA, van der Zwan CJ, Visscher H (2004b) A sporomorph ecogroup model for the northwest European Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous II. Application to an exploration well from the Dutch North Sea. Netherl J Geosc 83:81–91Google Scholar
  4. Aigner T (1985) Storm depositional systems: dynamic stratigraphy in modern and ancient shallow-marine sequences. Lecture notes in earth sciences, vol 3. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  5. Aigner T, Reineck H-E (1982) Proximality trends in modern storm sands from the Helgoland Bight (North Sea) and their implications for basin analysis. Senck marit 14:183–215Google Scholar
  6. Aigner T, Reineck H-E (1983) Seasonal variation of wave base on the shoreface of the barrier island Norderney, North Sea. Senck marit 15:87–92Google Scholar
  7. Allen JRL (1982) Sedimentary structures: their character and physical basis. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  8. Allen JRL, Collinson J (1974) The superposition and classification of dunes formed by unidirectional flow. Sed Geol 12:169–178Google Scholar
  9. Appel D (1981) Petrographie und Genese der Sandsteine des Unter- und Mittelräts im nördlichen Harzvorland (Ostniedersachsen). Mitt Geol Inst TU Hannover 20:1–133Google Scholar
  10. Arnott RW, Southard JB (1990) Exploratory flow-duct experiments on combined-flow bed configurations, and some implications for interpreting storm-event stratification. J Sed Petrol 60:211–219Google Scholar
  11. Ashley GM (1990) Classification of large-scale subaqueous bedforms: a new look at an old problem. J Sed Petrol 60:160–172Google Scholar
  12. Bachmann GH, Grosse S (1989) Struktur und Entstehung des Norddeutschen Beckens – geologische und geophysikalische Interpretation einer verbesserten Bouguer-Schwerekarte. Nieders Akad Geow Veröffentl 2:23–47Google Scholar
  13. Bachmann GH, Geluk M, Warrington J, Becker A, Beutler G, Hagdorn H, Hounslow M, Nitsch E, Röhling H-G, Simon T, Szulc A, Dusar M, Nielsen LH, Barnasch J, Franz M (2010) Triassic. In: Doornenbal H, Stevenson A (eds) Petroleum Geological Atlas of the Southern Permian Basin Area. EAGE, Houton, pp 149–173Google Scholar
  14. Barbacka M, Ziaja J, Wcislo-Luraniec E, Reymanowna M (2007) Hirmerella muensteri (Schenk) Jung from Odrowąż (Poland), with female and male cones, and in situ Classopollis pollen grains. Acta Palaeobot 47:339–357Google Scholar
  15. Barth G (2011) Das Ober-Norium von Seinstedt (Niedersachsen) – Sedimentologie, Geochemie und Arthropodenfunde (Insekten, Conchostraken). Diploma thesis, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-WittenbergGoogle Scholar
  16. Barth G, Kozur HW (2011) A Latest Norian age for insect-bearing beds of the Fuchsberg and Langenberg near Seinstedt, northern foreland of the Harz Mountains (Lower Saxony, Germany). In: Sullivan R, Lucas S, Spielmann J (eds) Fossil Record 3. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque, pp 157–165Google Scholar
  17. Barth G, Ansorge J, Brauckmann C (2011) First record of the genus Ipsvicia (Hemiptera: Ipsviciidae) outside Gondwana – An Australian congener from the Upper Triassic of Germany. Pol J Entom 80:645–657Google Scholar
  18. Barth G, Nel A, Franz M (2013) Two new odonate-like insect wings from the latest Norian of northern Germany. Pol J Entom 82:127–142Google Scholar
  19. Behrend F (1927) Erläuterungen zur Geologischen Karte von Preußen, Blatt Hornburg und Blatt Hessen. Lfg. 245, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  20. Benda L (1960) Bericht über die Anreicherung von Uran in Phosphoriten Niedersachsens, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Phosphorites von Seinstedt. MTB Hornburg, vol 3929Google Scholar
  21. Benda L (1963) Über die Anreicherung von Uran und Thorium in Phosphoriten und Bonebeds des nördlichen Harzvorlandes. Geol Jb 80:313–348Google Scholar
  22. Benek R, Kramer W, McCann T, Scheck M, Negendank JFW, Korich D, Huebscher H-D, Bayer U (1996) Permo-Carboniferous magmatism of the Northeast German Basin. Tectonophysics 266:379–404Google Scholar
  23. Bhattacharya JP (2006) Deltas. In: Posamentier HW, Walker RG (eds) Facies models revisited. Special publication 84. Society for Sedimentary Geology, Tulsa, pp 237–292Google Scholar
  24. Bhattacharya JP, Walker RG (1991) Facies and facies successions in river- and wave-dominated depositional systems of the Upper Cretaceous Dunvegan Formation, northwestern Alberta. B Can Petrol Geol 39:165–191Google Scholar
  25. Bhattacharya JP, Walker RG (1992) Deltas. In: Walker RS, James NP (eds) Facies models: response to sea-level change. Geological Association of Canada, pp 157–177Google Scholar
  26. Brauns D (1862) Der Sandstein bei Seinstedt unweit des Fallsteins und die in ihm vorkommenden Pflanzenreste. Palaeontographica 9:47–62Google Scholar
  27. Brauns D (1866) Der Sandstein bei Seinstedt unweit des Fallsteins und die in ihm vorkommenden Pflanzenreste, nebst Bemerkungen über die Sandsteine gleichen Niveaus anderer Örtlichkeiten Norddeutschlands. Palaeontographica 13:237–246Google Scholar
  28. Buatois LA, Mángano MG (2011) Ichnology: Organism–substrate interactions in space and time. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  29. Caroll RL (1997) Paläontologie und Evolution der Wirbeltiere. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  30. Coleman JM, Prior DB (1982) Deltaic Environments. In: Scholle PA, Spearing D (eds) Sandstone depositional environments. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, pp 139–178Google Scholar
  31. Coleman JM, Wright LD (1975) Modern river deltas: variability of processes and sand bodies. In: Broussard ML (ed) Deltas, Models for Exploration. Houston Geological Society, Houston, pp 99–149Google Scholar
  32. Coleman JM, Gagliano SM, Webb JE (1964) Minor sedimentary structures in a prograding distributary. Mar Geol 1:240–258Google Scholar
  33. De Raaf JFM, Boersma JR, van Gelder A (1977) Wave generated structures and sequences from a shallow marine succession. Lower Carboniferous, County Cork, Ireland. Sedimentology 4:1–52Google Scholar
  34. Dettner K, Peters W (eds) (2010) Lehrbuch der Entomologie. Spektrum, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  35. Donaldson AC, Martin RH, Kanes WH (1970) Holocene Guadelupe delta of Texas Guld Coast. In: Morgan JP (ed) Deltaic sedimentation, modern and ancient, Soc. Econ. Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publications, vol 15, pp 107–137Google Scholar
  36. Dumas S, Arnott RWC (2006) Origin of hummocky and swaley cross-stratification—The controlling influence of unidirectional current strength and aggradation rate. Geology 34:1073–1076Google Scholar
  37. Elliott T (1974) Interdistributary bay sequences and their genesis. Sedimentology 21:611–622Google Scholar
  38. Elliott T (1986) Deltas. In: Reading HG (ed) Sedimentary environments and facies. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 113–154Google Scholar
  39. Etzold A, Schweizer V (2005) Der Keuper in Baden-Württemberg. In: Deutsche Stratigraphische Kommission (eds) Stratigraphie von Deutschland IV – Keuper. Cour Forsch-Inst Senckenberg 253:214–264Google Scholar
  40. Fielding CR, Trueman J, Alexander J (2005) Sharp-based mouth bar sands from the Burdekin River Delta of northeastern Australia: extending the spectrum of mouth bar facies, geometry, and stacking patterns. Int J Sed Res 75:55–66Google Scholar
  41. Fischer J (2008) Brief synopsis of the hybodontiform form taxon Lissodus Brough, 1935, with remarks on the environment and associated fauna. FFH C528:1–23Google Scholar
  42. Fisher DC (1979) Evidence for subaerial activity of Euproops danae (Merostomata, Xiphosurida). In: Nitecki MH (ed) Mazon Creek fossils. Academic Press, New York, pp 379–447Google Scholar
  43. Fisher DC (1984) The Xiphosurida: archetypes or bradytely? In: Eldredge N, Stanley SM (eds) Living fossils. Springer, New York, pp 196–213Google Scholar
  44. Fisher WL, Brown LF, Scott AJ, McGowen JH (1972) Delta systems in the exploration for oil and gas. Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas, AustinGoogle Scholar
  45. Fisk HN, McFarlan E, Kolb CR, Wilbert LJ (1954) Sedimentary framework of the modern Mississippi delta. J Sed Petrol 24:76–99Google Scholar
  46. Folk RL, Ward WC (1957) Brazos River bar: a study in the significance of grain size parameters. J Sed Petrol 27:3–26Google Scholar
  47. Fraas E (1897) Reste von Zanclodon aus dem oberen Keuper vom Langenberge bei Wolfenbüttel. ZDGG 49:482–485Google Scholar
  48. Franz M (2008) Litho- und Leitflächenstratigraphie, Chronostratigraphie, Zyklo- und Sequenzstratigraphie des Keupers im östlichen Zentraleuropäischen Becken (Deutschland, Polen) und Dänischen Becken (Dänemark, Schweden). Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-WittenbergGoogle Scholar
  49. Gall J-C, Grauvogel L, Lehman JP (1974) Faune du Buntsandstein. V. – Les poissons fossiles de la collection Grauvogel-Gall. Annales de paléontologie, Vertébrés 60:129–147Google Scholar
  50. Galton PM (1984) Cranial anatomy of the prosauropod dinosaur Plateosaurus from the Knollenmergel (Middle Keuper, Upper Triassic) of Germany. I. Two complete skulls from Trossingen/Württ. With comments on the diet. Geol Pal 18:139–171Google Scholar
  51. Gilbert GK (1885) The topographic features of lake shores. Ann Rep US Geol Survey 5:69–123Google Scholar
  52. Gothan W (1914) Die unter-liassische (rhätische) Flora der Umgegend von Nürnberg. Abh Nat Ges 19:91–186Google Scholar
  53. Gould HR (1970) The Mississippi delta complex. In: Morgan JP, Shaver RH (eds) Deltaic sedimentation modern and ancient. Spec Publ Soc Econ Paleont Miner, vol 15, Tulsa, pp 3–30Google Scholar
  54. Grimaldi D, Engel MS (2005) Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  55. Harms JC (1975) Stratification and sequence in prograding shoreline deposits. SEPM, Short Course 2:81–102Google Scholar
  56. Harris TM (1932) The fossil flora of Scoresby Sound East Greenland – Part 2: Description of seed plants incertae sedis together with a discussion of certain Cycadophyte cuticles. Medd om Grønl 85:1–112Google Scholar
  57. Harris TM (1937) The fossil flora of Scoresby Sound. Part 5. Stratigraphic relations of the plant beds. Medd Grønl 112:1–114Google Scholar
  58. Haubold H (1989) Die Dinosaurier. A. Ziemsen, WittenbergGoogle Scholar
  59. Hauschke N, Kozur HW (2011) Two new conchostracan species from the Late Triassic of the Fuchsberg, northern foreland of the Harz Mountains northeast of Seinstedt (Lower Saxony, Germany). In: Sullivan R, Lucas S, Spielmann J (eds) Fossil Record 3, vol 53. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque, pp 187–194Google Scholar
  60. Hauschke N, Wilde V (1987) Paleolimulus fuchsbergensis n. sp. (Xiphosura, Merostomata) aus der oberen Trias von Nordwestdeutschland, mit einer Übersicht zur Systematik und Verbreitung rezenter Limuliden. Paläontol Z 61:87–108Google Scholar
  61. Hauschke N, Wilde V (1991) Zur Verbreitung und Ökologie mesozoischer Limuliden. N Jb Geol Paläont, Abh 183:391–411Google Scholar
  62. Hauschke N, Wilde V (1996) Fazies und Fossilführung im Unterrhät des Fuchsberges bei Seinstedt (nördliches Harzvorland, Niedersachsen). Hall Jb Geowiss B18:141–152Google Scholar
  63. Havlik P, Aiglstorfer M, El Atfy H, Uhl D (2013) A peculiar bonebed from the Norian Stubensandstein (Löwenstein Formation, Late Triassic) of southern Germany and its palaeoenvironmental interpretation. N Jb Geol Paläont, Abh 269:321–337Google Scholar
  64. Heunisch C (1998) Palynologischer Untersuchungsbericht, Fuchsberg. Technical report, 1743_2864. State Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology, HannoverGoogle Scholar
  65. Heunisch C (1999) Die Bedeutung der Palynologie für Biostratigraphie und Fazies in der Germanischen Trias. In: Hauschke N, Wilde V (eds) Trias – Eine ganz andere Welt. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, pp 207–220Google Scholar
  66. Heunisch C (2011a) Mikropaläontologischer Untersuchungsbericht, Fuchsberg/Langenberg. Technical report, 2010_3467, State Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology, HannoverGoogle Scholar
  67. Heunisch C (2011b) Mikropaläontologischer Untersuchungsbericht, Fuchsberg/Langenberg. Technical report, 2010_3500, State Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology, HannoverGoogle Scholar
  68. Heunisch C, Nitsch E (2011) Eine seltene Mikroflora aus der Mainhardt-Formation (Keuper, Trias) von Baden-Württemberg (Süddeutschland). Jb Mitt Oberrheinischen Geol Vereins, NF 93:1–22Google Scholar
  69. Holbrook JM (1996) Complex fluvial response to low gradients at maximum regression: a genetic link between smooth sequence-boundary morphology and architecture of overlying sheet sandstone. Int J Sed Res 66:713–722Google Scholar
  70. Hubbard MD, Peters WL (1978) Environmental requirements and pollution tolerance of Ephemeroptera. Environmental Protection Agency, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  71. Hunter RE, Clifton HE (1982) Cyclic deposition and hummocky cross-stratification of probable storm origin in Upper Cretaceous rocks of the Cape Sebastian Area, southwestern Oregon. J Sed Petrol 52:127–143Google Scholar
  72. Jaekel O (1911) Die Wirbeltiere. Eine Übersicht über die fossilen und lebenden Formen. Bornträger, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  73. Jones B, Manning DAC (1994) Comparison of geochemical indices used for the interpretation of palaeoredox conditions in ancient mudstones. Chem Geol 111:111–129Google Scholar
  74. Jopling AV, Walker RG (1968) Morphology and origin of ripple-drift cross-lamination with examples from the Pleistocene of Massachusetts. J Sediment Petrol 38:971–984Google Scholar
  75. Jung W (1968) Hirmerella muensteri (Schenk) Jung nov. comb., eine bedeutsame Konifere des Mesozoikums. Palaeontographica B122:53–93Google Scholar
  76. Jüngst H (1928) Rhät, Psilonoten- und Schlotheimienschichten im nördlichen Harzvorlande. Geol Pal Abh 20 (NF 16):1–194Google Scholar
  77. Jüngst H (1929) Zur vergleichenden Stratigraphie des Rät zwischen Harz und Elsaß. Dissertation, Technische Universität, DarmstadtGoogle Scholar
  78. Kelber K-P, van Konijnenburg–van Cittert JHA (1997) A new Rhaetian flora from the neighbourhood of Coburg (Germany) – preliminary results. Mededelingen Nederlands Instituut voor Toegepaste Geowetenschappen 58:105–113Google Scholar
  79. Kobayashi T (1954) Fossil Estherians and allied fossils. J Fac Sci, University of Tokyo, Section 2, 9:1–192Google Scholar
  80. Koch G, Schneider W (1985) Der Obere Keuper Südost-Niedersachsens in Übertage-Aufschlüssen – Fazies und Mineralbestand. Ber Nat Ges Hannover 125:19–48Google Scholar
  81. Kozur HW, Weems R (2010) The biostratigraphic importance of conchostracans in the continental Triassic of the northern hemisphere. In: Lucas S (ed) The Triassic Timescale, vol 334, Geological Society of London. Special Publications, London, pp 315–417Google Scholar
  82. Kumar N, Sanders JE (1976) Characteristics of shoreface storm deposits: Modern and ancient examples. J Sed Petrol 46:145–162Google Scholar
  83. Kustatscher E, van Konijenburg–van Cittert JHA (2007) Taxonomical and palaeogeographic considerations on the seedfern genus Ptilozamites. N Jb Geol Paläont, Abh 243:71–100Google Scholar
  84. Kustatscher E, Heunisch C, van Konijenburg–van Cittert JHA (2012) Taphonomical implications of the Ladinian megaflora and palynoflora of Thale (Germany). Palaios 27:753–764Google Scholar
  85. Lecointre G, Le Guyader H (2006) Biosystematik. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  86. Lehmann U, Hillmer G (1997) Wirbellose Tiere der Vorzeit. Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  87. Lewandowski J (1988) Sedimentpetrographische Untersuchungen im Keuper Nordwestdeutschlands. Dissertation, Ruhr-Universität, BochumGoogle Scholar
  88. Littke R, Scheck-Wenderoth M, Brix MR, Nelskamp S (2008) Subsidence, inversion and evolution of the therman field. In: Littke R, Bayer U, Gajewski D, Nelskamp S (eds) Dynamics of complex sedimentary basins. The example of the Central European Basin system. Springer, Berlin, pp 125–152Google Scholar
  89. Look E-R (1984) Geologie und Bergbau im Braunschweiger Land (Nördliches Harzvorland, Asse, Elm – Lappwals, Peine – Salzgitter, Allertal). Dokumentation zur Geologischen Wanderkarte 1:100.000. Ber Nat Ges Hannover 127:1–467Google Scholar
  90. López-Arbarello A (2008) Revision of Semionotus bergeri Agassiz, 1833 (Upper Triassic, Germany), with comments on the taxonomic status of Semionotus (Actinopterygii, Semionotiformes). Paläontol Z 82:40–54Google Scholar
  91. Lund JJ (1977) Rhaetic to Lower Liassic palynology of the onshore south-eastern North Sea Basin. Geological Survey of Denmark, II. Series 109:1–129Google Scholar
  92. Mackey SD, Bridge JS (1995) Three dimensional model of alluvial stratigraphy: theory and application. Int J Sed Res B65:7–31Google Scholar
  93. Malz H, Poschmann M (1993) Erste Süßwasser-Limuliden (Arthropoda, Chelicerata) aus dem Rotliegenden der Saar-Nahe-Senke. Osnabrücker naturwiss Mitt 19:21–34Google Scholar
  94. Martin JW (1989) Morphology of feeding structures in the Conchostraca with special reference to Lynceus. In: Felgenhauer BE, Watling L, Thistle AB (eds) Functional morphology of feeding and grooming in Crustacea, vol 5, Crustacean Issues, BalkemaGoogle Scholar
  95. McCune AR (1986) A revision of Semionotus (Pisces: Semionotidae) from the Triassic and Jurassic of Europe. Palaeontology 29:213–233Google Scholar
  96. Merrit RW, Cummins KW (1978) An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. Kendall-Hunt, DubuqueGoogle Scholar
  97. Miall AD (1977) A review of the braidedriver depositional environment. Earth Sci Rev 13:1–62Google Scholar
  98. Morton RA, Gelfenbaum G, Jaffe BE (2007) Physical criteria for distinguishing sandy tsunami and storm deposits using modern examples. Sed Geol 200:184–207Google Scholar
  99. Murry, PA (1989) Paleoecology and vertebrate faunal relationships of the Upper Triassic Dockum and Chinle Formations, southwestern United States. In: Lucas SG, Hunt AP (eds) Dawn of the Age of dinosaurs in the American Southwest. New Mexico Museum of Natural History, pp 375–400Google Scholar
  100. Myrow PM, Southard JB (1996) Tempestite deposition. Int J Sed Res 66:875–887Google Scholar
  101. Nitsch E (1996) Fazies, Diagenese und Stratigraphie der Grabfeld-Gruppe Süddeutschlands (Keuper, Trias). Dissertation, Universität KölnGoogle Scholar
  102. Paul J, Siggelkow D (2004) Lakustrische Sedimente der Solling-Folge (Mittlerer Buntsandstein, Norddeutschland). Geol Jb Hessen 131:61–79Google Scholar
  103. Pemberton SG, Ichnology Research Group (IRG) (1998) Ichnology Atlas. University of Alberta at Edmonton and University of Colorado at Boulder, electronic sourceGoogle Scholar
  104. Pflücker y Rico L (1868) Das Rhät (die Rhätische Gruppe) in der Umgebung von Göttingen. Dissertation, Universität GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  105. Pieńkowski G, Niedźwiedzki G, Waksmundzka M (2012) Sedimentological, palynological and geochemical studies of the terrestrial Triassic—Jurassic boundary in northwestern Poland. Geol Mag 149:308–332Google Scholar
  106. Reading HG (1996) Sedimentary environments: processes, facies and stratigraphy. Blackwell , OxfordGoogle Scholar
  107. Reible P (1962) Die Conchostraken (Branchiopoda, Crustacea) der Germanischen Trias. N Jb Geol Paläont, Abh 114:169–244Google Scholar
  108. Reineck H-E (1963) Sedimentgefüge im Bereich der südlichen Nordsee. Abh Senckenberg naturforsch Ges 505:1–138Google Scholar
  109. Reineck HE, Singh IB (1980) Depositional sedimentary environments – with reference to terrigenous clastics. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  110. Reinhardt L, Ricken W (2000) The stratigraphic and geochemical record of playa cycles: monitoring a Pangean monsoon-like system (Triassic, Middle Keuper, S. Germany). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 195:99–124Google Scholar
  111. Retallack JT, Clifford HF (1980) Periodicity of crustaceans in a saline prairie stream of Alberta, Canada. Am Midl Nat 103:123–132Google Scholar
  112. Reynolds AD (1999) Dimensions of paralic sandstone bodies. AAPG Bull 83:211–229Google Scholar
  113. Roemer H (1874) Ueber ein neues Vorkommen des Räth bei Hildesheim. ZDGG 26:349–354Google Scholar
  114. Röhling H-G (2002) Rhätsandsteine am Fuchsberg östlich von Seinstedt. NLfB Geotop Info FlyerGoogle Scholar
  115. Rosen DE, Forey PL, Gardiner BG, Patterson C (1981) Lungfishes, tetrapods, paleontology and plesiomorphy. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 167:159–276Google Scholar
  116. Royan JP (1976) Studies on the gut contents of Leptestheriella maduraiensis (Conchostraca: Branchiopoda) Nayar and Nair. Hydrobiologia 51:209–212Google Scholar
  117. Ruckwied K (2009) Palynology of Triassic/Jurassic boundary key sections of the NW Tethyan Realm (Hungary and Slovakia). Dissertation, Technische Universität DarmstadtGoogle Scholar
  118. Russel RJ (1967) River and delta morphology: Louisiana State University. Coastal Studies Institute, Tech Rept No 52:55Google Scholar
  119. Rust BR (1978) Depositional models for braided alluvium. In: Miall AD (ed) Fluvial sedimentology, Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir, vol 5, pp 605–625Google Scholar
  120. Sander PM (1992) The Norian Plateosaurus bonebeds of central Europe and their taphonomy. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 93:255–299Google Scholar
  121. Sander PM (1999) Die Plateosaurus-Friedhöfe im Keuper: Belege für einen Massentod? In: Hauschke N, Wilde V (eds) Trias – Eine ganz andere Welt. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, pp 419–425Google Scholar
  122. Schaeffer B (1967) Late Triassic fishes from the western United States. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 135:287–342Google Scholar
  123. Schaeffer B, Rosen DE (1961) Major adaptive levels in the evolution of the actinopterygian feeding mechanism. Am Zool 1:187–204Google Scholar
  124. Scheck M, Bayer U (1999) Evolution of the Northeast German Basin–inferences from a 3D structural model and subsidence analysis. Tectonophysics 313:145–169Google Scholar
  125. Scheck M, Bayer U, Lewerenz B (1996) Lithosphere structure underneath the Northeast German Basin: constraints by gravity modeling. Phys Chem Earth 21:313–318Google Scholar
  126. Schenk A (1867) Die fossile Flora der Grenzschichten des Keupers und Lias Frankens. Kreidel, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  127. Schimper WP (1869) Traitè de Paléontologie végétale ou la flore du monde primitif dans ses rapports avec les formations géologiques et la flore du monde actuel. Tome premier. Bailliére et Fils, ParisGoogle Scholar
  128. Schimper WP (1870–1872) Traitè de Paléontologie végétale ou la flore du monde primitif dans ses rapports avec les formations géologiques et la flore du monde actuel. Tome second. Bailliére et Fils, ParisGoogle Scholar
  129. Schimper WP (1874) Traitè de Paléontologie végétale ou la flore du monde primitif dans ses rapports avec les formations géologiques et la flore du monde actuel. Tome troisième. Bailliére et Fils, ParisGoogle Scholar
  130. Schlönbach A (1861) Mittheilung über das Bonebed bei Seinstedt unweit Hornburg. ZDGG XIII:17 and 353Google Scholar
  131. Schlönbach A (1862) Beitrag zur genauen Niveau-Bestimmung des auf der Grenze zwischen Keuper und Lias im Hannoverischen und Braunschweigischen auftretenden Sandsteins. N Jb Miner Geogn Geol Petrefaktenk 1862:146–177Google Scholar
  132. Schultze H-P, Kriwet J (1999) Die Fische der Germanischen Trias. In: Hauschke N, Wilde V (eds) Trias – Eine ganz andere Welt. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, pp 239–250Google Scholar
  133. Schweitzer HJ, van Konijnenburg-van Cittert JHA, van der Burgh J (1997) The Rhaeto–Jurassic flora of Iran & Afghanistan. 10. Bryophyta, Lycophyta, Sphenophyta, Pterophyta-Eusporangiatae & -Protoleptosporangiatae. Palaeontographica B243:103–192Google Scholar
  134. Schweitzer HJ, Kirchner M, van Konijnenburg-van Cittert JHA (2000) The Rhaeto-Jurassic flora of Iran & Afghanistan. 12. Cycadophyta II. Nilssoniales. Palaeontographica B254Google Scholar
  135. Schweizer R (1966) Ein Coelacanthide aus dem Oberen Muschelkalk Göttingens. N Jb Geol Paläont, Abh 125:216–226Google Scholar
  136. Scruton PC (1960) Delta building and the deltaic sequence. In: Shepard FP, Phleger FB, van Andel TH (eds) Recent sediments, northwest Gulf of Mexico. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, pp 82—102Google Scholar
  137. Seeling M (1999) Fazielle und sequenzstratigraphische Untersuchungen im Rhätkeuper (Exter-Formation) Thüringens und des nördlichen Harzvorlandes. Diploma thesis, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-WittenbergGoogle Scholar
  138. Seilacher A (1943) Elasmobranchier-Reste aus dem oberen Muschelkalk und dem Keuper Württembergs. N Jb Miner Geol Paläont, Mh 10:256–292Google Scholar
  139. Shcherbakov DE (1992) The earliest leafhopper (Hemiptera, Karajassidae n. fam) from the Jurassic of Karatau. N Jb Geol Paläont, Mh 1992:39–51Google Scholar
  140. Shcherbakov DE (2000) Permian faunas of Homoptera (Hemiptera) in relation to phytogeography and the Permo-Triassic Crisis. Pal J 34:251–267Google Scholar
  141. Shukla UK, Bachmann GH, Beutler G, Barnasch J, Franz M (2006) Extremely distal fluvial sandstones within the playa system of Arnstadt Formation (Norian, Late Triassic), Central Germany. Facies 52:541–555Google Scholar
  142. Smith ND (1972) Flume experiments on the durability of mudclasts. J Sed Petrol 42:378–384Google Scholar
  143. Southard JB, Boguchwal LA (1990) Bed configurations in steady unidirectional water flows. Part 2. Synthesis of flume data. J Sed Petrol 60:658–679Google Scholar
  144. Stampfli GM, Kozur HW (2006) Europe from the Variscan to the Alpine cycles. In: Gee DG, Stephenson RA (eds) European lithosphere dynamics. Geological Society Memoir, vol 32, London, pp 333–343Google Scholar
  145. Stern DH, Stern MS (1971) Morphology and culture of Eulimnadia diversa (Crustacea, Conchostraca) found in Louisiana. Trans Am Microsc Soc 90:483–486Google Scholar
  146. Stollhofen H, Barnasch J, Bayer U, Beutler G, Franz M, Kästner M, Legler B, Mutterlose J, Radies D (2008) Upper Rotliegend to Lower Cretaceous basin development. In: Littke R, Bayer U, Gajewski D, Nelskamp S (eds) Dynamics of complex sedimentary basins. The example of the Central European basin system. Springer, Berlin, pp 181–210Google Scholar
  147. Storch V, Welsch U (2004) Systematische Zoologie. Spektrum, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  148. Strenth NE, Sissom SL (1975) A morphological study on the post-embryonic stages of Eulimnadia texana Packard (Conchostraca, Crustacea). Texas J Sci 26:137–154Google Scholar
  149. Tye RS, Coleman JM (1989) Depositional processes and stratigraphy of fluvially dominated lacustrine deltas: Mississippi Delta plain. J Sed Petrol 59:973–996Google Scholar
  150. Tye RS, Kosters EC (1986) Styles of interdistributary basins sedimentation: Mississippi delta plain, Louisiana. Trans Gulf Coast Ass Geol Soc 36:575–588Google Scholar
  151. Underwood CJ, Ward DJ (2004) Environmental distribution of Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) neoselachians in southern England. In: Arratia G, Tintori A (eds) Mesozoic Fishes 3 – Systematics, Paleoenvironments and Biodiversity. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, pp 111–122Google Scholar
  152. van Konijenburg–van Cittert JHA, Schmeißner S, Hauptmann S, Hauptmann T (1998) Neue Ergebnisse zu Ctenozamites wolfiana (Pteridosperma) und Pseudoctenis prossii nov. spec. (Cycadophyta) aus dem Unteren Lias (Jura, Bayern). Doc Nat 117:13–33Google Scholar
  153. von Engelhardt W (1942) Untersuchungen an den Schwermineralen des nordwestdeutschen Rät. Öl Kohle 38:259–265Google Scholar
  154. von Huene F (1926) Vollständige Osteologie eines Plateosauriden aus dem schwäbischen Keuper. Geol Pal Abh, NF 15:139–179Google Scholar
  155. von Strombeck A (1852) Ueber den oberen Keuper bei Braunschweig. ZDGG 4:54–82Google Scholar
  156. Walker RG, Harms JC (1971) The ‘Catskill Delta’: A prograding muddy shoreline in central Pennsylvania. J Geol 79:381–399Google Scholar
  157. Ward JV (1992) Aquatic insect ecology, Part 1: Biology and habitat. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  158. Warren G (1974) Simplified form of the Folk-Ward skewness parameter. J Sed Petrol 44:259Google Scholar
  159. Weber R (1968) Die fossile Flora der Rhät-Lias-Übergangsschichten von Bayreuth (Oberfranken) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Coenologie. Erl Geol Abh 72:3–73Google Scholar
  160. Weishampel DB (1984) Trossingen: E. Fraas, F. von Huene, R. Seemann, and the ‘Schwäbische Lindwurm’ Plateosaurus. In: Reif W-E, Westphal F (eds) Third Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems. Attempto, Tübingen, pp 249–253Google Scholar
  161. Weishampel DB, Westphal F (1986) Die Plateosaurier von Trossingen. Attempto, TübingenGoogle Scholar
  162. Wentworth C (1922) A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments. J Geol 30:377–392Google Scholar
  163. Winkler T (1880) Description de quelques restes du poissons fossiles des terrains triasiques des environs de Wurzburg. Arch Musée Teyler 5:1–41Google Scholar
  164. Wright DL (1977) Sediment transport and deposition at river mouths: a synthesis. Geol Soc Am Bull 88:857–868Google Scholar
  165. Yabumoto Y (2008) A new Mesozoic coelacanth from Brazil (Sarcopterygii, Actinistia). Pal Res 12:329–343Google Scholar
  166. Zavialova N, van Konijnenburg–van Cittert JHA (2011) Exine ultrastructure of in situ peltasperm pollen from the Rhaetian of Germany and its implications. Rev Palaeobot Palyno 168:720Google Scholar
  167. Ziegler PA (1990) Geological Atlas of Western and Central Europe. Shell International Petroleum, Den HaagGoogle Scholar
  168. Ziegler B (1998a) Einführung in die Paläobiologie, Teil 2: Spezielle Paläontologie: Protisten, Spongien und Coelenteraten. Mollusken. E. Schweizerbart, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  169. Ziegler B (1998b) Einführung in die Paläobiologie, Teil 3: Spezielle Paläontologie: Würmer, Arthropoden, Lophophoraten. Echinodermen. E. Schweizerbart, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  170. Zimmermann J, Franz M, Wolfgramm M (2014) The Late Aalenian Polyplocussandstein Formation in SE Lower Saxony, Germany: Meandering distributary and crevasse splay sedimentation on a lower deltaic plain. N Jb Geol Paläont, Abh 271:69–94Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregor Barth
    • 1
    Email author
  • Matthias Franz
    • 1
  • Carmen Heunisch
    • 2
  • Evelyn Kustatscher
    • 3
    • 4
  • Detlev Thies
    • 5
  • Jürgen Vespermann
    • 6
  • Markus Wolfgramm
    • 7
  1. 1.TU Bergakademie FreibergFreibergGermany
  2. 2.Landesamt für Bergbau, Energie und Geologie (LBEG)HannoverGermany
  3. 3.Naturmuseum SüdtirolBolzanoItaly
  4. 4.Department für Geo- und Umweltwissenschaften, Paläontologie und GeobiologieLudwig-Maximilians-Universität und Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und GeologieMünchenGermany
  5. 5.Institut für GeologieLeibnitz Universität HannoverHannoverGermany
  6. 6.Roemer- und Pelizaeus-MuseumHildesheimGermany
  7. 7.GTN Geothermie Neubrandenburg GmbHNeubrandenburgGermany

Personalised recommendations