Skip to main content
Log in

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Aeronautic dentistry: an upcoming branch

  • review article
  • Published:
international journal of stomatology & occlusion medicine

This article was retracted on 05 May 2015


Exposure to microgravity and the space environment during short and long duration space missions has important medical and health implications in astronauts. Numerous counter measures have been developed and tested for moderating these physiological changes. The acclimatisation of astronauts to these conditions is of utmost importance. Aeronautical dentistry is a newly recognized speciality in dentistry concerning the application of dentistry to aeronautical environments. Various orofacial structures are affected in an outer space. An aeronautic dentist has to be prepared to screen and select only those astronauts with optimal oral health. Also, an aeronautic dentist has to be prepared to face any emergencies that may arise due to exposure to microgravity. This article highlights the effects of microgravity on human body with emphasis on orofacial structures.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Paloski WH, Black FO, Reschke MF, Shupert C. Vestibular ataxia following shuttle flights: effects of microgravity on otolith-mediated sensomotor control of posture. American Journal Otol. 1993;14:9–17.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Antonutto G, di Prampero PE. Cardiovascular deconditioning in microgravity: some possible countermeasures. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;90:283–91.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Fritsch-Yelle JM, Leuenberger UA, D’ Aunno DS, Rossum AC. An episode of ventricular tachycardia during long duration spaceflight. Am J Cardiol. 1998;81:1391–92.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Herault S, Fomina G, Alferova I, Kotovskaya A. Cardiac, arterial and venous adaptation to weightlessness during 6-month MIR spaceflights with and without thigh cuffs. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000;81:384–90.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Edgerton VR, Zhou MY, Ohira Y. Human fiber size and enzymatic properties after 5 and 11 days of spaceflight. J Appl Physiol. 1995;78:1733–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Gundel A, Polyakov VV, Zulley J. The alteration of human sleep and circadian rhythms during spaceflight. J Sleep Res. 1997;6:1–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Rai B, Kaur J. The history and importance of aeronautic dentistry. J Oral Sci. 2011;53:143–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Rai B, Kaur J, Catalina M. Bone mineral density, bone miner al content, gingival crevicular fluid (matrix metalloprotein ases, cathepsin K, osteocalcin) and salivary and serum osteocalcin levels in human mandible and alveolar bone under conditions of simulate dmicrogravity. J Oral Sci. 2010;52:385–90.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Haignere C, Jonas P, Girot G. Bone height measu rements around a dental implant after a 6-month space flight: a case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac.Implants 2006;21:450–4.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Kumei Y, Shimokawa H, Katano H et al. Microgravity induced prostaglandin E2 and int erleukin-6 production in normal rat osteoblasts: role in bone demineralization. J. Biotechnol 1996;47:313–24.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Bullon P, Goberna B, Guerrero JM, Segura JJ. Serum saliva and gingival crevicular fluid osteocalcin: their relation to periodontal status and bone mineral density in post menopausal women. J Periodontol 2005;76:513–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Rai B, Kharb S, Jain R, Anand SC. Biomarkers of periodontitis in oral fluids. J Oral Science 2008;50:53–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Smith, SM, Davis-Street JE, Rice BL, Nillen JL. Nutritional status assessment in semiclosed environments: ground based and space flight studies in humans. J Nutrition 2001;131(7):2053–61.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Bronner F. Calcium and osteoporosis. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60(6):831–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Vickers ZM, Rice BL, Rose MS, Lane HW. Simulated microgravity [bed rest] has little influence on taste, odor or trigeminal sensitivity. J Sens Stud 2001;16 (1):23–32.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Arden NK, Spector TD. Genetic influences on muscle strength, lean body mass and bone mineral density: a twin study. J Bone Miner Res. 1997;12:2076–81.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Hannan MT, Felson DT, Dawson-Hughes B, Tucker KL. Risk factors for longitudinal bone loss in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15:710–20.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Leblanc AD, Schneider VS, Evans HJ, Engelbretson DA. Bone mineral loss and recovery after 17 weeks of bed rest. J Bone Miner Res. 1990;5:843–50.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. White RJ, Blomqvist CG. Central venous pressure and cardiac function during Spaceflight. J Appl Physiol. 1998;85:738–46.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Birkedal-Hansen H. Role of matrix metalloproteinases in human periodontal diseases. J Periodontol. 1993;64:474–84.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Golub LM, Lee HM, Greenwald RA, Ryan ME. A matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor reduces bone-type collagen degradation fragments and specific collagenases in gingival crevicular fluid during adult periodontitis. Inflamm Res. 1997;46:310–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Teng YT, Sodek J, McCulloch CA. Gingival crevicular fluid gelatinase and its relationship to periodontal disease in human subjects. J Periodontal Res. 1992;27:544–52.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Parazynski SE, Hargens AR, Tucker B. Transcapillary fluid shifts in tissues of the head and neck during and after simulated microgravity. J Appl Physiol 1991;71(6):2469–75.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Kirsch KA, R¨ocker L, Gauer OH et al. Venous pressure in man during weightlessness. Science 1984;225,218–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Rai B, Kaur J, Foing B. Evaluation by an aeronautic dentist on the adverse effects of a six week period of microgravity on the oral cavity. Int J of Dentistry 2011;1–5.

  26. Sforza C, Tartaglia GM, Solimene U, Morgun V. Occlusion, sternocleidomastoid muscle activity, and body sway: a pilot study in male astronauts. Cranio. 2006;24:43–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Haigneré C, Jonas P, Khayat P, Girot G. Bone height measurements around a dental implant after a 6-month space flight: a case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2006;21:450–4.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Stein TP, Schulter MD, Boden G. Development of insulin resistance by astronauts during spaceflight. Aviation Space Environment Med. 1994;65:1091–6.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Stein TP. Nutrition and muscle loss in humans during space flight. Advance Space Biology Med. 1999;7:49–97.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Stein TP. Nutrition in the space station era. Nutrition Research Rev. 2001;14:87–118.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Compliance with ethical guidelines

Conflict of interest

K. S. Soodan, P. Priyadarshni, and J. P. Singh state that there are no conflicts of interest.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kanwaldeep Singh Soodan.

Additional information

This article has been withdrawn by Professional Media Department, Springer-Verlag Wien due to proven plagiarism.

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Soodan, K., Priyadarshni, P. & Singh, J. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Aeronautic dentistry: an upcoming branch. J. Stomat. Occ. Med. 7, 91–96 (2014).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: