Skip to main content

Eocene tube-dwelling annelids (Polychaeta: Sedentaria) from the Black Hills, western Washington State: the first record of Neodexiospira from North America

Abstract

Fossils of two new species of small, dextrally coiled polychaetes, Neodexiospira ferlinghettii and Neodexiospira vanslykei from Eocene strata in the Black Hills southwest of Olympia, Washington State, USA represent the first records of Neodexiospira from North America and the eastern North Pacific Basin. Neodexiospira ferlinghettii occurs in early Eocene sediments within the Crescent Formation near Larch Mountain, and N. vanslykei is found in late Eocene basal sandstone of the Lincoln Creek Formation exposed along Porter Creek. The tubewall of N. vanslykei has two layers: the microstructure of the outer, wider layer consists of tall prismatic crystals radially oriented, and an inner layer consists of larger less defined prismatic crystals oriented perpendicular to the outer layer. In addition, the tracefossil Conchocelichnus was discovered within the tubewalls of some specimens of N. vanslykei, the first record of this ichnogenus from North America.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

(modified from Armentrout et al. 1980)

Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

References

  • Armentrout, J.M., K. McDougall, P.T. Jefferis, and E. Nesbitt. 1980. Geologic field trip guide for the Cenozoic stratigraphy and late Eocene paleoecology of southwestern Washington. Field Trips in Western Oregon and Southwestern Washington. State of Oregon, Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Bulletin 101.

  • Armentrout, J.M. 1973. Molluscan paleontology and biostratigraphy of the Lincoln Creek Formation (late Eocene-Oligocene), southwestern Washington. University of Washington (Seattle), unpublished PhD thesis, 479 pp.

  • Arnold, R. 1906. Geological reconnaissance of the coast of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. Geological Society of America Bulletin 17: 451–468.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arnold, R. 1910. Paleontology of the Coalinga district, Fresno and Kings counties, California. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 396: 1–173, pls. 1–30.

  • Astibia, H., A. Payros, S. Ortiz, J. Elorza, G. Álvarez Pérez, A. Badiola, N. Bardet, A. Berreteaga, M.A. Bitner, S. Calzada, J.C. Corral, I. Díaz Martínez, D. Merle, J.M. Pacaud, X. Pereda Suberbiola, A. Pisera, F.J. Rodríguez Tovar, and J. Tosquella. 2016. Fossil associations from the middle and upper Eocene strata of the Pamplona Basin and surrounding areas (Navarre, western Pyrenees). Journal of Iberian Geology 42 (1): 7–28. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_JIGE.2016.v42.n1.51601.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bahrami, A., M. Yazdi, S. Sadri, and M. Khodaverdi-Hassanvand. 2018. The first report of the Eocene annelid worms (Polychaeta) of Sarakeh syncline (Soh area - northwest of Isfahan - Central Iran). Scientific Semiannual Journal Sedimentary Facies 11: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.22067/sed.facies.v11i1.59559.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beikman, H.M., W.W. Rau, and H.C. Wagner. 1967. The Lincoln Creek Formation, Grays Harbor basin, southwestern Washington. US Geological Survey Bulletin 1244–I: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3133/b1244I.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Belokrys, L.S. 1984. Spirorbiny Pritsemomorskogo Miocena. Paleontologičeskij Zhurnal 1984 (2): 26–39.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bianchi, C.N. 1981. Policheti Serpuloidei. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricereche; Guide per il riconoscimento delle specie animali delle acque lagunari e costiere Italiene 5: 1–187.

  • Bignot, G. 1968. Remarques sur quelques Serpulides de la Craie de la région de Dieppe (SM). Bulletin De La Société Géologique De Normandie Et Des Amis Du Muséum Du Havre 57: 17–28.

    Google Scholar 

  • Breton, G., M. Jäger, and T. Kočí. 2020. The sclerobionts of the Bajocian Oolithe ferrugineuse de Bayeux Formation from Calvados (Paris Basin, Normandy, France). Annales De Paléontologie 106: 102361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annpal.2019.07.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buatois, L.A., M. Wisshak, M.A. Wilson, and M.G. Mángano. 2017. Categories of architectural designs in trace fossils: A measure of ichnodisparity. Earth-Science Reviews 164: 102–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2016.08.009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bush, K.J. 1905. Tubicolous annelids of the tribes Sabellides and Serpulides from the Pacific Ocean. Harriman Alaska Expedition 12: 169–346, plates XXI–XLIV. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/22063650

  • Caullery, M., and F. Mesnil. 1897. Études sur la morphologie comparée et la phylogénie des espèces chez les Spirorbes. Bulletin scientifique de la France et de la Belgique 30: 185–233, plates 7–10. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10721821

  • Chamberlin, R.V. 1919. The Annelida Polychaeta [Albatross Expeditions]. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 48: 1–514. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.49195.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chernyshev, A.V., and J.L. Goedert. 2021. New species of latest Eocene/earliest Oligocene microgastropods (Heterobranchia: Orbitestellidae and Omalogyridae) from the Gries Ranch Formation, Lewis County, Washington State, USA. Zootaxa 4981: 469–480. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4981.3.3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Čtyroký, P. 1959. Výskyt Ditrupa cornea (Linnaeus, 1758) v československém spodním miocénu. Věstník Ústředního Ústavu Geologického 34: 283–288.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cupedo, F. 1980. De opercula van Sclerostyla mellevillei (Nyst et le Hon), “Serpulainstabilis (Wrigley) en “Ditrupamosae (Bronn), en hun betekenis voor de systematiek van deze soorten. Publicaties Van Het Natuurhistorisch Genootschap in Limburg 29: 1–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Daudin, F.M. 1800. Receuil de mémoires et de notes sur des espèces inédites ou peu connues de Mollusques, de vers et de zoophytes. xviii & 19–50. Fuchs and Treuttel et Wurtz. Paris.

  • de Quatrefages, A. 1866. (1865). Histoire naturelle des Annelés marins et d’eau douce. Annélides et Géphyriens. Librarie Encyclopédique De Roret. Paris. 1: 1–588.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dell’Angelo, B., A. Bonfitto, and M. Taviani. 2011. Chitons (Polyplacophora) from Paleogene strata in western Washington State, U.S.A. Journal of Paleontology 85: 936–954. https://doi.org/10.1666/10-114.1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dickerson, R.E. 1915. Fauna of the Type Tejon: Its relation to the Cowlitz Phase of the Tejon Group of Washington. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 5: 33–98.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dickerson, R.E. 1914. Fauna of the Martinez Eocene of California. Bulletin of the Department of Geology, University of California 6: 61–180.

  • Duncan, R.A. 1982. A captured island chain in the Coast Range of Oregon and Washington. Journal of Geophysical Research 87: 10827–10837. https://doi.org/10.1029/JB087iB13p10827.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eddy, M.P., K.P. Clark, and M. Polenz. 2017. Age and volcanic stratigraphy of the Eocene Siletzia oceanic plateau in Washington and on Vancouver Island. Lithosphere 9: 652–664. https://doi.org/10.1130/L650.1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eichwald, E. (1830). Naturhistorische Skizze von Lithauen, Volhynien und Podolien in geognostisch-mineralogischer, botanischer und zoologischer Hinsicht. Wilna [Vilnius], Zawadzki. 256 p., 3 pl.

  • Elorza, J., and H. Astibia. 2018a. El anélido Rotularia spirulaea (Lamarck, 1818) (Polychaeta, Serpulidae) de las margas del Eoceno de la Cuenca de Pamplona (Navarra): Microestructura, tafonomía y paleoecología. Spanish Journal of Palaeontology 32: 343–366. https://doi.org/10.7203/sjp.32.2.17048.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elorza, J., and H. Astibia. 2018b. Fosil diagénesis del anélido Rotularia spirulaea (Lamarck, 1818) (Polychaeta, Serpulidae) en el Eoceno del dominio pirenaico occidental. Spanish Journal of Palaeontology 33 (2): 299–320. https://doi.org/10.7203/sjp.33.2.13605.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fauchald, K. 1977. The Polychaete worms. Definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series 28: 1–190, 42 figs.

  • Fleming, C.A. 1971. A preliminary list of New Zealand fossil polychaetes. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 14: 742–756. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.1971.10426332.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gabb, W.M. 1860. Descriptions of new species of American Tertiary and Cretaceous fossils. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 2nd Series 4: 375–406, pls. 67–69.

  • Gardner, J. 1939. Notes on fossils from the Eocene of the Gulf province. I. The annelid genus Tubulostium. II, The gastropod families Cassididae, Ficidae, and Buccinidae. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 193–B: 17–44. https://doi.org/10.3133/pp193B

  • Gatto, R., and U. Radwańska. 2000. Serpulid opercula (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Upper Eocene of Possagno, NE Italy: Taxonomy, taphonomy and palaeobiological significance. Acta Geologica Polonica 50: 343–354.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gee, J.M. 1964. The British Spirorbinae (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) with a description of Spirorbis cuneatus sp. n. and a review of the genus Spirorbis. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 143: 405–441.

    Google Scholar 

  • Globerman, B.R., M.E. Beck Jr., and R.A. Duncan. 1982. Paleomagnetism and tectonic significance of Eocene basalts from the Black Hills, Washington Coast Range. Geological Society of America Bulletin 93: 1151–1159. https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1982)93%3c1151:PATSOE%3e2.0.CO;2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goedert, J.L., and B.K. Raines. 2016. First Paleogene Caecidae (Gastropoda: Truncatelloidea) from the northeastern Pacific Ocean and the earliest record for the genus Caecum Fleming, 1813. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 129: 38–47. https://doi.org/10.2988/0006-324X-129.Q1.38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goedert, J.L., and R.L. Squires. 1990. Eocene deep-sea communities in localized limestones formed by subduction-related methane seeps, southwestern Washington. Geology 18: 1182–1185. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1990)018%3c1182:EDSCIL%3e2.3.CO;2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goldfuss, A. 1826–1844, Petrefacta Germaniae. Abbildungen und Beschreibungen der Petrefacten Deutschlands und der angränzenden Länder, unter Mitwirkung des Herrn Grafen Georg zu Münster, herausgegeben von August Goldfus[s]. – viii + 252 + iii + 312 + iv + 128 pp., 200 pls; Arnz & Co., Düsseldorf.

  • Gower, H.D., and M.H. Pease, Jr. 1965. Geology of the Montesano quadrangle, Washington. U.S. Geological Survey, Map GQ–374. https://doi.org/10.3133/gq374

  • Groves, L.T. 2011. New species of Paleogene cypraeoideans (Gastropoda) from the Pacific Slope of North America. The Nautilus 125: 45–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • Groves, L.T., and R.L. Squires. 1995. First report of the genus Proadusta Sacco, 1894 (Gastropoda: Cypraeidae) from the Western Hemisphere, with a description of a new species from the Eocene of Washington. The Nautilus 109: 113–116.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grube, A.E. 1850. Die Familien der Anneliden. Archiv Für Naturgeschichte, Berlin 16: 249–364.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gyula, R. 1972. Zostera-bryozoa–Spirorbis biocönózis a borsodi miocénből (A Zostera-bryozoa–Spirorbis biocoenosis from the Miocene of the Borsod Basin). Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése 1: 55–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hayward, B.W. 1977. Lower Miocene polychaetes from the Waitakere Ranges, North Auckland, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 7: 5–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/03036758.1977.10419333.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hoffmann, R., M.A. Bitner, A. Pisera, M. Jäger, G. Auer, V. Giraldo-Gómez, T. Kočí, J. Buckeridge, M. Mueller, K. Stevens, and S. Schneider. 2020. Late Miocene biota from the Abad Member of the Carboneras-Nijar Basin (Spain, Andalusia): A bathyal fossil assemblage pre-dating the Messinian salinity crisis. Geobios, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geobios.2020.03.002

  • Hoşgör, I., and Y. Okan. 2006. The annelid polychaete Rotularia spirulaea Lamarck, 1818, from the early Middle Eocene (middle-late Cuisian) of Çankırı Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey). Journal of the Earth Sciences Application and Research Centre of Hacettepe University 27: 173–179.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hove, H.A. ten, and E.K. Kupriyanova. 2009. Taxonomy of Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta): The state of affairs. Zootaxa 2036: 126.https://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2009/f/zt02036p126.pdf

  • Hybertsen, F., and S. Kiel. 2018. A middle Eocene seep deposit with silicified fauna from the Humptulips Formation in western Washington State, USA. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 63: 751–768. https://doi.org/10.4202/app.00525.2018.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ippolitov, A.P. 2007a. Contribution to the revision of some Late Callovian serpulids (Annelida, Polychaeta) of central Russia: Part 1. Paleontological Journal 41: 260–267. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0031030107040090.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ippolitov, A.P. 2007b. Contribution to the revision of some Late Callovian serpulids (Annelida, Polychaeta) of central Russia: Part 2. Paleontological Journal 41: 429–436. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0031030107040090.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ippolitov, A.P. 2010. Serpulid (Annelida, Polychaeta) evolution and ecological diversification patterns during Middle-Late Jurassic. Earth Science Frontiers 17: 207–208.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ippolitov, A.P., and A.V. Rzhavsky. 2015a. Tube morphology, ultrastructures and mineralogy in Recent Spirorbinae (Annelida: Polychaeta: Serpulidae). II. Tribe Spirorbini. Invertebrate Zoology 12 (1): 61–92. https://doi.org/10.15298/invertzool.12.1.03.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ippolitov, A.P., and A.V. Rzhavsky. 2015b. Tube morphology, ultrastructures and mineralogy in Recent Spirorbinae (Annelida: Polychaeta: Serpulidae). III. Tribe Circeini. Invertebrate Zoology 12 (2): 151–173. https://doi.org/10.15298/invertzool.12.2.03.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ippolitov, A.P., and A.V. Rzhavsky. 2008. On the tube microstructure of recent spirorbids (Annelida, Polychaeta). In Doklady Biological Sciences (Vol. 418, No. 1, p. 20 –22). Springer Nature BV.doi: https://doi.org/10.1134/S0012496608010079

  • Ippolitov, A.P., and Rzhavsky, A.V. 2014. Tube morphology, ultrastructures and mineralogy in Recent Spirorbidae (Annelida: Polychaeta: Serpulidae). I. General Introduction. Tribe Paralaeospirini. Invertebrate Zoology, 11 (2), 293–314.doi: https://doi.org/10.15298/invertzool.11.2.01

  • Ippolitov, A.P., O. Vinn, E.K. Kupriyanova, and M. Jäger. 2014. Written in stone: history of serpulid polychaetes through time. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 71: 123–159, 9 figs, 2 tbls.http://museumvictoria.com.au/about/books-and-journals/journals/memoirs-of-museum-victoria/

  • Ippolitov, A.P. 2011. Features of serpulid (Annelida, Polychaeta) stratigraphical distribution in the Jurassic of Russian Platform, p 80–83, in Zakharov V.A., Rogov M.A. and Ippolitov, A.P. (eds): Jurassic System of Russia: Problems of Stratigraphy and Paleogeography, Saint-Petersburg, September 26–30, 2011, LEMA, 276 p. [in Russian]

  • Jäger, M. 1983. Serpulidae (Polychaeta, Sedentaria) aus der norddeutschen höheren Oberkreide – Systematik, Stratigraphie, Ökologie. Geologisches Jahrbuch, Reihe A 68: 3–219.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jäger, M. 1993. Danian Serpulidae and Spirorbidae from NE Belgium and SE Netherlands: K/T boundary extinction, survival, and origination patterns. Contributions to Tertiary and Quaternary Geology 29 (3–4): 73–137.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jäger, M. 2005. Serpulidae und Spirorbidae (Polychaeta, Sedentaria) aus Campan und Maastricht von Norddeutschland, den Niederlanden, Belgien und angrenzenden Gebieten. Geologisches Jahrbuch, Reihe A 157: 121–249.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jäger, M. 2011. Sabellidae, Serpulidae and Spirorbinae (Polychaeta, Sedentaria) from the Barremian (Lower Cretaceous) of the Serre de Bleyton (Drôme, SE France). Annalen Des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A 113: 675–733.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jäger, M., and G. Breton. 2002. Un tube géant de Serpulide, Pyrgopolon (Septenaria) marechali n. sp. (Polychaeta) du Cénomanien inférieur (Crétacé supérieur) du Cap de la Hève (Normandie, France). Bulletin Trimestriel De La Société Géologique De Normandie Et Amis Du Muséum Du Havre 87: 39–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jäger, M., and T. Kočí. 2007. A new serpulid, Placostegus velimensis sp. nov., from the Lower Turonian of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin. Acta Geologica Polonica 57: 89–96.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jäger, M., and S. Schubert. 2008. Das Ober-Pliensbachium (Domerium) der Herforder Liasmulde, Teil 2, Serpuliden (Kalkröhrenwürmer). Geologie Und Palaeontologie in Westfalen 71: 47–75.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jäger, M., and F. Lang. 2017. Serpuliden und Sabelliden aus dem oberen Kimmeridgium von Saal bei Kelheim, in Lang, F. and Simonsen, S., Fossilien aus dem Riffschuttkalk des Kimmeridgium (Oberjura) von Saal a. d. Donau bei Kelheim (Bayern). Der Steinkern 30: 76–83

  • Jäger, M., and S. Schneider. 2009. Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the lower Ottnangian (Late Burdigalian) Upper Marine Molasse of Dommelstadl and Gurlarn (Passau area, Lower Bavaria, SE Germany) – Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen, vol. 254/1–2, 105–115, Stuttgart. doi: https://doi.org/10.1127/0077-7749/2009/0005

  • Jäger, M., M. Kapitzke, and M. Rieter. 2001. Neufunde von Pannoserpula pannosa (Quenstedt, 1857) (Polychaeta, Serpulidae) aus den Korallenkalken (Ober-Kimmeridgium) von Nattheim und Gerstetten (Schwäbische Alb). New records of Pannoserpula pannosa (Quenstedt, 1857) (Polychaeta, Serpulidae) from the coral limestones (Upper Kimmeridgian) of Nattheim and Gerstetten (Swabian Alb). – Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Serie B 308: 17.

  • Jäger, M., T. Kočí, K.I. Schnetler, S.B. Andersen, and S.L. Jacobsen. 2018. Sabellidae and Serpulidae (Polychaeta, Canalipalpata) from the Danian of Denmark, with special consideration of specimens from the Faxe quarry – preliminary report. pp. 32–34. In Folia Musei Rerum Natzralium Bohemiae Occidentalis Geologica et Palaeobilogica, Special Volume / 2018 Abstract Book 19th Czech-Slovak-Polish Palaeontological Conference & MIKRO 2018 workshop Editors: Pšenička Josef, Frojdová Jana, Svobodová Andrea and Dašková Jiřina. West Bohemian Museum in Pilsen. Plzeň.

  • Jäger, M. 2014. 4. Serpuliden und Sabelliden. Serpulids and sabellids. In: Niebuhr, B.; Wilmsen, M. (Eds.): Kreide-Fossilien in Sachsen, Teil 1. Geologica Saxonica, 60 (1): 57–81, Dresden.

  • Khodaverdi-Hassanvand, M., T. Kočí, A. Bahrami, M. Yazdi, and A. Safari. 2018. The serpulid polychaete Rotularia spirulaea (LAMARCK, 1818) from the Eocene of Isfahan (Iran) and its palaeoecological implication. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie-Abhandlungen, 287. Heft 2: 123–142. https://doi.org/10.1127/njgpa/2018/0708.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kiel, S., M. Sami, and M. Taviani. 2018. A serpulid-Anodontia-dominated methane-seep deposit from the Miocene of northern Italy. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 63: 569–577. https://doi.org/10.4202/app.00472.2018.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kiel, S. 2010. An eldorado for paleontologists: the Cenozoic seeps of western Washington State, USA. The Vent and Seep Biota, Springer, Dordrecht p. 433–448. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9572-5_14

  • Knight-Jones, P. 1972. New species and a new subgenus of Spirorbinae (Serpulidae: Polychaeta) from Kenya. Journal of Zoology 166: 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1972.tb04071.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Knight-Jones, P., E.W. Knight-Jones, and T. Kawahara. 1975. A review of the genus Janua, including Dexiospira (Polychaeta: Spirorbinae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 56: 91–129. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1975.tb00812.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Knight-Jones, P., E.W. Knight-Jones, and R.P. Dales. 1979. Spirorbidae (Polychaeta: Sedentaria) from Alaska to Panama. Journal of Zoology 189 (4): 419–458. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1469-7998.1979.TB03973.X.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kočí, T. 2010. The subgenus Septenaria Regenhardt, 1961 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from Lower Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) nearshore facies of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, Czech Republic. Journal of the National Museum (Prague). Natural History Series 179: 119–126.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kočí, T. 2012. Sabellidae and Serpulidae (Polychaeta, Canalipalpata) from the locality Kaňk – Na Vrších in Kutná Hora (Upper Cenomanian – Lower Turonian, Bohemian Cretaceous Basin – the Czech Republic). Sborník Národního Muzea v Praze, Rada B, Přírodní vědy. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B, Historia Naturalis 68: 7–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kočí, T., and M. Jäger. 2013. Sabellid and serpulid worms from the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Upper Cenomanian – Middle Coniacian) originally in the collection of Professor Antonín Frič. Sborník Národního Muzea v Praze, Rada B, Přírodní vědy. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B, Historia Naturalis 69: 129–146.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kočí, T., and M. Jäger. 2015a. Sabellid and serpulid worms (Polychaeta, Canalipalpata, Sabellida, Sabellidae, Serpulidae) from the rocky coast facies (Late Cenomanian) at Předboj near Prague. Sborník Národního Muzea v Praze, Rada B, Přírodní vědy. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B, Historia Naturalis 71: 31–50.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kočí, T., and M. Jäger. 2015b. Filogranula cincta (Goldfuss, 1831), a serpulid worm (Polychaeta, Sedentaria, Serpulidae) from the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin. Sborník Národního Muzea v Praze, Rada B, Přírodní vědy. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B, Historia Naturalis 71: 293–300.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kočí, T., M. Jäger, and N. Morel. 2017. Sabellid and serpulid worm tubes (Polychaeta, Canalipalpata, Sabellida) from the historical stratotype of the Cenomanian (Late Cretaceous; Le Mans region, Sarthe, France). Annales De Paléontologie 103: 45–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annpal.2016.11.004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kočí, T., M. Jäger, J. Šamánek, and P. Hykš. 2019. Tube dwelling polychaetes from the Oxfordian (Late Jurassic) of Hády Quarry at Brno (Moravia, Czech Republic). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie-Abhandlungen,294. Heft 3: 311–332. https://doi.org/10.1127/njgpa/2019/0862.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kočí, T., G. Bosio, A. Collareta, R. Sanfilippo, B. Ekrt, M. Urbina, and E. Malinverno. 2020. First report on the cirratulid (Annelida, Polychaeta) reefs from the Miocene Chilcatay and Pisco Formations (East Pisco Basin, Peru). Journal of South American Earth Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2020.103042.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kočí, T., and P. Ledvák. 2014. Preliminary report on the tube dwelling polychaetes from the Upper Badenian locality Devín-Meríce (Lingula Bed) of the Central Paratethys (Middle Miocene – Slovakia). – 15th Czech-Polish-Slovak Palaeontological Conference; Slovensko, Banská Bystrica; 19.-20. 11.2014.

  • Kupriyanova, E.K., H.A. ten Hove, B. Sket, V. Zakšek, P. Trontelj, and G.W. Rouse. 2009. Evolution of the unique freshwater cave-dwelling tube worm Marifugia cavatica (Annelida: Serpulidae). Systematics and Biodiversity 7: 389–401.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kupriyanova, E.K., A.V. Rzhavsky, and H. A. ten Hove. 2020. 7.4.7 Serpulidae Rafinesque, 1815. In Pleistoannelida, Sedentaria II (pp. 213–275). De Gruyter.

  • Lauridsen, B.W., T. Edvardsen, K.H. Blinkenberg, and L. Stemmerik. 2019. Palaeoecology and survival strategies of an impoverished benthic chalk community in a mid-Danian deep shelf setting. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 514: 474–486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.10.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lehrke, J., H.A. ten Hove, T.A. Macdonald, T. Bartolomaeus, and C. Bleidorn. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships of Serpulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) based on 18S rDNA sequence data, and implications for opercular evolution. Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 7: 195–206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ode.2006.06.004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lommerzheim, A. 1979. Monographische Bearbeitung der Serpulidae (Polychaeta, Sedentaria) aus dem Cenoman (Oberkreide) am Südwestrand des Münsterländer Beckens. Decheniana 132: 110–195.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lommerzheim, A. 1981. Paläozäne Serpulidae und Spirorbidae (Polychaeta) von den Emperor Seamounts, NW-Pazifik. Zitteliana 7: 31–54.

    Google Scholar 

  • Macellari, C.E. 1984. Revision of Serpulids of the genus Rotularia (Annelida) at Seymour Island (Antarctic Peninsula) and their value in stratigraphy. Journal of Paleontology 58: 1098–1116.

    Google Scholar 

  • McSweeney, F., and J.S. Buckeridge. 2017. The fossils of the Urban Sanctuary: Rickett’s Point, Victoria 3193, 114. Melbourne: Greypath Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Merriam, C.W., and F.E. Turner. 1937. The Capay middle Eocene of northern California. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geological Sciences 24: 91–114.

  • Mikuž, V. 2008. The serpulid worm Rotularia spirulaea from Eocene beds near Gracisce in Istria, Croatia. Geologija 51: 161–168. https://doi.org/10.5474/geologija.2008.017.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Montagu, G. 1803. Testacea Britannica or natural history of British shells, marine, land, and fresh-water, including the most minute: Systematically arranged and embellished with figures. J. White, London, Vol. 1, xxxvii + 291 pp;; Vol. 2, 293–606.

  • Nesbitt, E.A. 1998. Marine fauna of the middle Eocene Tukwila Formation, King County. Washington Geology 26: 13–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nicol, D., and D.S. Jones. 1982. Rotularia vernoni, an annelid worm tube from the Eocene of peninsular Florida. Florida Scientist 45: 139–142.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nielsen, K.B. 1931. Serpulidae from the Senonian and Danian deposits of Denmark. Meddelelser Fra Dansk Geologisk Forening 8: 71–113.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nishi, E. 1993. On the internal structure of calcified tube walls in Serpulidae and Spirorbidae (Annelida, Polychaeta). Marine Fouling 10: 17–20. https://doi.org/10.4282/sosj1979.10.17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parsch, K.O.A. 1956. Die Serpuliden-Fauna des südwestdeutschen Jura. Palaeontographica Abteilung a, Paläozoologie, Stratigraphie 107: 211–240.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pasternak S.I. 1973. Cretaceous serpulids of the European part of the USSR. Naukowa Dumka, Kiew, 82 p. [In Russian]

  • Pease, M.H., Jr., and L. Hoover. 1957. Geology of the Doty-Minot Peak area, Washington. U.S. Geological Survey Oil and Gas Investigations Map OM–188.

  • Peckmann, J., J.L. Goedert, V. Thiel, W. Michaelis, and J. Reitner. 2002. A comprehensive approach to the study of methane-seep deposits from the Lincoln Creek Formation, western Washington State, USA. Sedimentology 49: 855–873. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3091.2002.00474.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Perreault, R.T., and J.S. Buckeridge. 2019. Paleogene Verrucidae (Cirripedia: Verrucomorpha) of North America, with descriptions of three new species. Zootaxa 4712: 34–50. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4712.1.2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pillai, T.G. 1970. Studies on a collection of spirorbids from Ceylon, together with a critical review and revision of spirorbid systematics, and an account of their phylogeny and zoogeography. Ceylon Journal of Science (biological Sciences) 8: 100–172.

    Google Scholar 

  • Prothero, D.R., and J.M. Armentrout. 1985. Magnetostratigraphic correlation of the Lincoln Creek Formation, Washington: Implications for the age of the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. Geology 13: 208–211.

    Google Scholar 

  • Prothero, D.R., C.D. Jaquette, and J.M. Armentrout. 2001. Magnetic stratigraphy of the upper Eocene – upper Oligocene Lincoln Creek Formation, Porter Bluffs, Washington. Pp. 169–178 in D. R. Prothero (ed.) Magnetic Stratigraphy of the Pacific Coast Cenozoic. Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM) Book 91.

  • Radtke, G., S.E. Campbell, and S. Golubic. 2016. Conchocelichnus seilacheri igen. et isp. nov., a complex microboring trace of bangialean rhodophytes. Ichnos 23: 228–236. https://doi.org/10.1080/10420940.2016.1199428.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Radwańska, U. 1994a. Tube-dwelling polychaetes from the Korytnica Basin (Middle Miocene; Holy Cross Mountains, Central Poland). Acta Geologica Polonica 44: 35–82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Radwańska, U. 1994b. A new group of microfossils: Middle Miocene (Badenian) opercular caps (calottae) of the tube-dwelling polychaetes Vermiliopsis Saint-Joseph, 1894. Acta Geologica Polonica 44: 83–96.

    Google Scholar 

  • Radwańska, U. 1996. Tube-dwelling polychaetes from some Upper Cretaceous sequences of Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica 46: 61–80.

    Google Scholar 

  • Radwańska, U. 2004. Tube-dwelling polychaetes from the Upper Oxfodian of Wapienno/Bielawy, Couiavia region, north-central Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica 54: 35–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rafinesque, C.S. 1815. Analyse de la nature ou tableau de l‘universe et des corps organisés. 224 pp. Palermo.

  • Ramsdale, R. 2021. A possible serpulid tube worm of the genus Filograna from the upper Permian Cadeby Formation of South Yorkshire, UK. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 63: pygs2020–016. doi: https://doi.org/10.1144/pygs2020-016

  • Rau, W.W. 1966. Stratigraphy and Foraminifera of the Satsop River area, southern Olympic Peninsula, Washington. State of Washington Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 53: 1–66.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rau, W.W. 1967. Geology of the Wynoochee Valley quadrangle, Grays Harbor County, Washington. State of Washington Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 56: 1–51, map in pocket.

  • Rau, W.W. 1986. Geologic map of the Humptulips quadrangle and adjacent areas, Grays Harbor County, Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources Geologic Map GM–33.

  • Read, G., and K. Fauchald. (Ed.) 2021. World Polychaeta Database. Neodexiospira Pillai, 1970. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=129634 on 2021–05–22

  • Regenhardt, H. 1961. Serpulidae (Polychaeta sedentaria) aus der Kreide Mitteleuropas, ihre ökologische, taxionomische und stratigraphische Bewertung. Mitteilungen Aus Dem Geologischen Staatsinstitut in Hamburg 30: 5–115.

    Google Scholar 

  • Regenhardt, H. 1964. “Wurm-” und Serpuliden-Röhren in Geschieben unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von “Riffbildungen”. Lauenburgische Heimat. Zeitschrift Des Heimatbund Und Geschichtsvereins Herzogtum Lauenburg, Neue Folge 45: 57–62.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reus, A.E. 1860. Die marinen Tertiärschichten Böhmens und ihre Versteinerungen. Sitzungsberichte der Mathematischen-Naturwissenschaften Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften 34: 207–285.

  • Rovereto, G. 1901. Briozoi, anellidi e spugne perforanti del Neogene Ligure. Palaeontographia Italica 7: 219–234.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rovereto, G. 1903. Anellidi del terziario. Rivista Italiana Di Paleontologia 9: 103–104.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rovereto, G. 1904. Studi monografici sugli Anellidi fossili, 1, Terziario. Palaeontographia Italica 10: 1–73.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rutsch, R. 1939. Die Gattung Tubulostium im Eocene der Antillen. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae 32: 231–244.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rzhavsky, A.V. 1991. Revision of Januinae (Polychaeta, Spirorbidae) in the Seas of the USSR. Zoologiceskij Zhurnal 70 (8): 37–45 ([In Russian]).

    Google Scholar 

  • Rzhavsky, A.V. and Britayev, T.A. 1984. The ecology of Janua (Dexiospira) nipponica and J. (D.) alveolata (Polychaeta, Spirorbidae) near the southern shore of the Soviet Far East and the morphology of their tubes. Zoologiceskij zhurnal 63(9): 1305–1315. [In Russian]

  • Saint-Joseph, A.D. 1894. Les Annélides polychètes des côtes de Dinard. In Annales Des Sciences Naturelles 17: 1–395.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sanfilippo, R. 1998. Spirorbid Polychaetes as boreal guests in the Mediterranean Pleistocene. Rivista Italiana Di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 104: 279–286. https://doi.org/10.13130/2039-4942/5335.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sanfilippo, R. 2009. New species of Hyalopomatus Marenzeller, 1878 (Annelida, Polychaeta, Serpulidae) from Recent Mediterranean deep-water coral mounds and comments on some congeners. Zoosystema 31: 147–161. https://doi.org/10.5252/z2009n1a8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sanfilippo, R., A. Rosso, A. Reitano, and G. Insacco. 2017. First record of sabellid and serpulid polychaetes from the Permian of Sicily. Acta Paleontologica Polonica 62: 25–38. https://doi.org/10.4202/app.00288.2016.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sanfilippo, R., A. Rosso, A. Reitano, A. Viola, and G. Insacco. 2018. New serpulid polychaetes from the Permian of western Sicily. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 63: 579–584. https://doi.org/10.4202/app.00448.2017.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Savazzi, E. 1995. Morphology and mode of life of the polychaete Rotularia. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 69: 73–85.

    Google Scholar 

  • Savazzi, E. 1999. Serpulid polychaetes. In Functional Morphology of the Invertebrate Skeleton, ed. E. Savazzi, 601–607. John Wiley and Sons.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schlögl, J., J. Michalík, K. Zágoršek, and F. Atrops. 2008. Early Tithonian serpulid-dominated cavity-dwelling fauna, and the recruitment pattern of the serpulid larvae. Journal of Paleontology 82: 351–361. https://doi.org/10.1666/06-127.1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schlögl, J., T. Kočí, M. Jäger, T. Segit, J. Sklenář, D. Sadki, M. Ibnoussina, and A. Tomašových. 2018. Tempestitic shell beds formed by a new serpulid polychaete from the Bajocian (Middle Jurassic) of the Central High Atlas (Morocco). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 92: 219–240. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12542-017-0381-5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, W.J. 1951. Neue Serpulidae aus dem tertiären Wiener Becken. Annalen Des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 58: 77–84.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, W.J. 1955b. Der stratigraphische Wert der Serpulidae im Tertiär. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 29: 38–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, W.J. 1955a. Die Tertiären Würmer Österreichs. Denkschriften der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 109: 1–121. Wien.

  • Schmidt W.J. 1969. Vermes. Catalogus Fossilium Austriae (Ein systematisches Verzeichnis aller auf österreichischem Gebiet festgestellten Fossilien), vol 5 / a. Springer, pp. 56. Vienna. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-5824-1_3

  • Schmitt, W. 1927. Über Opercula von Serpula aus der Unteroligozänscholle von Calbe a.d. Saale und dem französischen Eozän. Zeitschrift für Geschiebeforschung 3: 138–142, pl. 10.

  • Sklenář, J., T. Kočí, and M. Jäger. 2013. Late Turonian polychaete communities recorded in the hemipelagic sediments of Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Teplice Formation, Ohře and Dresden districts). Bulletin of Geosciences 88: 675–695. https://doi.org/10.3140/bull.geosci.1412.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Snavely, P.D., Jr., R.D. Brown, Jr., A.E. Roberts, and W.W. Rau. 1958. Geology and coal resources of the Centralia-Chehalis district Washington, with a section on the microscopical character of Centralia-Chehalis coal by J.M. Schopf. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 1953, 1–159, pls. 1–13 (1–6 in pocket, with Table 1 and Chart 1).

  • Sørensen, A.M., and F. Surlyk. 2010. Palaeoecology of tube-dwelling polychaetes on a Late Cretaceous rocky shore, Ivö Klack (Skåne, southern Sweden). Cretaceous Research 31: 553–566. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2010.07.005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Squires, R.L. 1983. New Mollusks from the lower Middle Eocene Llajas Formation, Southern California. Journal of Paleontology 57: 354–362.

    Google Scholar 

  • Squires, R.L. 1984. Megapaleontology of the Eocene Llajas Formation, Simi Valley, California. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 350: 1–76.

    Google Scholar 

  • Squires, R.L. 1987. Eocene molluscan paleontology of the Whitaker Peak area, Los Angeles and Ventura counties, California. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 388: 1–93.

    Google Scholar 

  • Squires, R.L. 1988. Eocene macropaleontology of northern Lockwood Valley, Ventura County, California. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 398: 1–23.

    Google Scholar 

  • Squires, R.L., and R.A. Demetrion. 1992. Paleontology of the Eocene Bateque Formation, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Contributions in Science 434: 1–55.

    Google Scholar 

  • Squires, R.L., and J.L. Goedert. 1994. Macropaleontology of the Eocene Crescent Formation in the Little River Area, Southern Olympic Peninsula, Washington. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 444: 1–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Squires, R.L., and J.L. Goedert. 1995. New Species of Middle Eocene Gastropods from the Northern Doty Hills, Southwestern Washington. The Veliger 38: 254–269.

    Google Scholar 

  • Squires, R.L., and J.L. Goedert. 1996. New species of small to minute gastropods of early Eocene age from the Crescent Formation, Black Hills, southwest Washington. The Veliger 39: 226–240.

    Google Scholar 

  • Squires, R.L., J.L. Goedert, S.R. Benham, and L.T. Groves. 1996. Protoconch of the rare ovulid gastropod Cypraeogemmula warnerae Effinger, 1938, from the Eocene of western Washington. The Veliger 39: 136–141.

    Google Scholar 

  • Squires, R.L., and D.M. Advocate. 1986. New Early Eocene Mollusks from the Orocopia Mountains, Southern California. Journal of Paleontology 60: 851–864. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1305074

  • Squires, R.L., J.L. Goedert, and K.L. Kaler. 1992. Paleontology and stratigraphy of Eocene rocks at Pulali Point, Jefferson County, Olympic Peninsula, Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources, Report of Investigations 31: 1–27.

  • Stringer, G.L. 2016. Evidence and implications of marine invertebrate settlement on Eocene otoliths from the Moodys Branch Formation of Montgomery Landing (Louisiana, U.S.A.). Cainozoic Research 16: 3–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tabor, R.W., and W.M. Cady. 1978 Geologic map of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-994.

  • Tashman, J.N., R.M. Feldmann, C.E. Schweitzer, and B.A. Thiel. 2018. Inferences for grooming behavior drawn from epibionts on early to middle Cenozoic crabs of Oregon and Washington State, USA. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum 44: 9–22.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, P.D., and O. Vinn. 2006. Convergent morphology in small spiral worm tubes (‘Spirorbis’) and its palaeoenvironmental implications. Journal of the Geological Society 163: 225–228. https://doi.org/10.1144/0016-764905-145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, P.D., and M.A. Wilson. 2003. Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities. Earth-Science Reviews 62: 1–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00131-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, P.D., O. Vinn, A. Kudryavtsev, and J.W. Schopf. 2010. Raman spectroscopic study of the mineral composition of cirratulid tubes (Annelida, Polychaeta). Journal of Structural Biology 171: 402–405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsb.2010.05.010.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • ten Hove, H.A., and P. van den Hurk. 1993. A review of Recent and fossil serpulid “reefs”: Actuopalaeontology and the “Upper Malm” serpulid limestone in NW Germany. Geologie En Mijnbouw 72: 23–67.

    Google Scholar 

  • Toulmin, L.D. 1977. Stratigraphic distribution of Paleocene and Eocene fossils in the Eastern Gulf Coast Region. Geological Survey of Alabama, Monograph 13: 1–602.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Winkle, K. 1918. Paleontology of the Oligocene of the Chehalis Valley, Washington. University of Washington, Publications in Geology 1: 69–97.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vega, F., and M. de C. Perrilliat. 1995. On Some Paleocene invertebrates from the Potrerillos Formation (Difunta Group), northeastern Mexico. Journal of Paleontology 69: 862–869. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1306351

  • Vinn, O. 2007. Taxonomic implications and fossilization of tube ultrastructure of some Cenozoic serpulids (Annelida, Polychaeta) from Europe. Neues Jahrbuch Für Geologie Und Paläontologie 244: 115–128. https://doi.org/10.1127/0077-7749/2007/0244-0115.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vinn, O. 2008. Tube ultrastructure of the fossil genus Rotularia Defrance, 1827 (Polychaeta, Serpulidae). Journal of Paleontology 82: 206–212. https://doi.org/10.1666/06-125.1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vinn, O. 2009. The ultrastructure of calcareous cirratulid (Polychaeta, Annelida) tubes. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 58: 153–156. https://doi.org/10.3176/earth.2009.2.06.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vinn, O. 2020. Biomineralization of polychaete annelids in the fossil record. Minerals 10: 858. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10100858.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vinn, O., and H. Furrer. 2008. Tube structure and ultrastructure of serpulids from the Jurassic of France and Switzerland, its evolutionary implications. Neues Jahrbuch Für Geologie Und Paläontologie 250 (2): 129–135. https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-9756.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vinn, O., and H. Mutvei. 2009. Calcareous tubeworms of the Phanerozoic. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 58: 286–296. https://doi.org/10.3176/earth.2009.4.07.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vinn, O., and M.A. Wilson. 2010. Sabellid-dominated shallow water calcareous polychaete tubeworm association from the equatorial Tethys Ocean (Matmor Formation, Middle Jurassic, Israel). Neues Jahrbuch Für Geologie Und Paläontologie-Abhandlungen 258: 31–38. https://doi.org/10.1127/0077-7749/2008/0248-0079.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vinn, O., M. Jäger, and K. Kirsimäe. 2008a. Microscopic evidence of serpulid affinities of the problematic fossil tube ‘Serpula’etalensis from the Lower Jurassic of Germany. Lethaia 41 (4): 417–421. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3931.2008.00093.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vinn, O., H. Mutvei, H.A. ten Hove, and K. Kirsimäe. 2008b. Unique Mg-calcite skeletal ultrastructure in the tube of the serpulid polychaete Ditrupa. Neues Jahrbuch Für Geologie Und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 248: 79–89. https://doi.org/10.1127/0077-7749/2008/0248-0079.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vinn, O., H.A. ten Hove, H. Mutvei, and K. Kirsimäe. 2008c. Ultrastructure and mineral composition of serpulid tubes (Polychaeta, Annelida). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 154: 633–650. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00421.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vinn, O., E.K. Kupriyanova, and S. Kiel. 2012. Systematics of serpulid tubeworms (Annelida, Polychaeta) from Cretaceous and Cenozoic hydrocarbon-seep deposits in North America and Europe. Neues Jahrbuch Fur Geologie Und Palaontologie-Abhandlungen 265: 315–325. https://doi.org/10.1127/0077-7749/2012/0271.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vinn, O., E.K. Kupriyanova, and S. Kiel. 2013. Serpulids (Annelida, Polychaeta) at Cretaceous to modern hydrocarbon seeps: Ecological and evolutionary patterns. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 390: 35–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2012.08.003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vinn, O., K. Hryniewicz, C.T. Little, and H.A. Nakrem. 2014. A boreal serpulid fauna from Volgian-Ryazanian (latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous) shelf sediments and hydrocarbon seeps from Svalbard. Geodiversitas 36 (4): 527–540. https://doi.org/10.5252/g2014n4a2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vinn, O. 2005. The tube ultrastructure of serpulids (Annelida, Polychaeta) Pentaditrupa subtorquata, Cretaceous, and Nogrobs cf. vertebralis, Jurassic from Germany. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology 54: 260–265. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A198715000/AONE?u=anon~c72110a6&sid=googleScholar&xid=ed636d10 [accessed 05 Dec 2021].

  • Ware, S. 1975. British Lower Greensand Serpulidae. Palaeontology 18: 93–115.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weaver, C.E. 1943. Paleontology of the marine Tertiary formations of Oregon and Washington. University of Washington Publications in Geology 5: 789.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weedon, M.J. 1994. Tube microstructure of Recent and Jurassic serpulid polychaetes and the question of the Palaeozoic spirorbids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 39: 1–15.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wells, R.E. 1989. Geologic map of the Cape Disappointment-Naselle River area, Pacific and Wahkiakum counties, Washington. U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I–1832.

  • Wetzel, W. 1957. Semiserpula, eine neue Röhrenwurm-Gattung aus dem Alt-Tertiär Chiles. Senckenbergiana Lethaea 38: 29–36.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolfe, E.W., and E.H. McKee. 1968. Geology of the Grays River quadrangle, Wahkiakum and Pacific counties, Washington. State of Washington Division of Mines and Geology, Geologic Map GM-4.

  • Wrigley, A. 1949. Les opercules de serpulides de l’Eocene du bassin de Paris. Bulletin De La Société Géologique De France 5: 499–505.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wrigley, A. 1951. Some Eocene serpulids. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 62: 177–202.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yamaguchi, T., and J.L. Goedert. 2009. 2009 Early Eocene ostracodes from the Crescent Formation in southwestern Washington, USA. Journal of Micropalaeontology 28: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1144/jm.28.2.117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zatoń, M., M.A. Wilson, and E. Zavar. 2011. Diverse sclerozoan assemblages encrusting large bivalve shells from the Callovian (Middle Jurassic) of southern Poland. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 307: 232–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.05.022.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ziegler, V. 1973. Fauna středního turonu Českého ráje. Die Fauna aus dem Mittelturonien des Böhmisches [sic] Paradieses. Část 2. Serpulidae. Práce a Studie, Příroda Pardubice 5: 31–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ziegler, V. 1978. The significance of the family Serpulidae (Polychaeta, Sedentarida [sic]) for stratigraphic correlation of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin. Paleontologická Konference 77: 217–222.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ziegler V. 1984. Family Serpulidae (Polychaeta, Sedentaria) from the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin. Sborník Národního Muzea v Praze, Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae 39 B: 213–254.

  • Zilch, A., and O. Boettger. 1934. Zur Fauna des Mittel-Miocäns von Kostej (Banat): Typus-Bestimmung und Tafeln zu O Boettger’s Bearbeitungen. Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft. Senkenbergiana 16: 193–302.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Dale Vanslyke for allowing access to the Porter Creek locality. We thank S.R. Benham and S.V. Goedert for helping to collect fossils used in this study. We are indebted to Ing. Lenka Váchová (Palaeontological Department, National Museum, Prague) for her kind help with SEM imaging. We thank Dr. Jan Sklenář (Palaeontological department, National Museum, Prague) for providing access to an Olympus SZX12 binocular microscope. We than R. Eng (UWBM) for providing specimen and locality numbers. We thank to Olev Vinn (University of Tartu) and one anonymous reviewer for their valuable comments which contributed to improving the quality of this paper. This work was financially supported by Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic (DKRVO 2019–2023/2.I.d, National Museum, 00023272).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tomáš Kočí.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Handling Editor: Mike Reich.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kočí, T., Goedert, J.L. & Buckeridge, J.S. Eocene tube-dwelling annelids (Polychaeta: Sedentaria) from the Black Hills, western Washington State: the first record of Neodexiospira from North America. PalZ (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12542-022-00604-y

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12542-022-00604-y

Keywords

  • Serpulidae
  • Spirorbinae
  • Microstructure
  • Crescent formation
  • Lincoln creek formation
  • Conchocelichnus