Skip to main content

Phenetic classification of Kimmeridgian ammonites from the eastern Kachchh Basin, India


Thirty Kimmeridgian (Upper Jurassic) ammonite specimens of the genera Torquatisphinctes, Pachysphinctes, Katroliceras, and Indodichotomoceras collected from two horizons in the eastern part of the Kachchh Basin were phenetically classified. First, 23 morphological characters were selected for the analysis. The difference matrix was generated by treating the characters as a binary system (0 or 1) and giving scores between 0 and 2. The dendrogram, prepared using the R program, shows perfect groupings of the different taxa identified earlier through a traditional taxonomic approach. The percentage of shared characters has helped choosing significant characters to be used in distinguishing three major groups and one subgroup, which also validates the visual identification of the ammonite taxa. Categorization of the ammonites was also subjected to a Mann-Whitney U test to verify the results. Overall, the dendrogram depicted three distinct clusters, the Torquatisphinctes, Pachysphinctes, and Katroliceras groups. The specimens of Indodichotomoceras (designated the Indodichotomoceras subgroup) were clustered within the Torquatisphinctes group potentially because of their biplicate ornamentation and presence of constrictions. However, the Indodichotomoceras subgroup maintained its identity because of the thickness of the primary and secondary ribs.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  • Arkell, W.J., B. Kummel, and C.W. Wright. 1957. Mesozoic Ammonoidea. In Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part L, Mollusca 4, Cephalopoda, Ammonoidea, ed. R.C. Moore, 80–437. New York, N.Y.: Geological Society of America and Lawrence, Kans.: University of Kansas Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Biswas, S.K. 1980. Mesozoic rock-stratigraphy of Kutch, Gujarat. The Quarterly Journal of the Geological, Mining and Metallurgical Society of India 49: 1–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blakey, R.C. 2008. Gondwana paleogeography from assembly to break-up—A 500 million year odyssey. Geological Society of America Special Paper 441: 1–28.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fürsich, F.T., M. Alberti, and D.K. Pandey. 2013. Stratigraphy and palaeoenvironments of the Jurassic rocks of Kachchh—Field guide. Beringeria, Special Issue 7: 1–174.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krishna, J., and D.B. Pathak. 1991. Ammonoid biochronology of the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridgian Stage in Kachchh, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 36: 1–13.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krishna, J., D.B. Pathak, and B. Pandey. 1996. Quantum refinement in the Kimmeridgian ammonoid chronology in Kachchh (India). GeoResearch Forum 1–2: 195–204.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pandey, D.K., M. Alberti, and F.T. Fürsich. 2012. Ammonites of the genus Perisphinctes Waagen, 1869 from the Oxfordian of Kachchh, western India. Revue de Paléobiologie 31: 483–587.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pandey, D.K., M. Alberti, F.T. Fürsich, E. Głowniak, and F. Olóriz. 2013. Ammonites from the Oxfordian–Kimmeridgian boundary and the Lower–Upper Kimmeridgian of Kachchh, western India. Volumina Jurassica 11: 97–146.

    Google Scholar 

  • Patel, S.J., P.N. Joshi, and J.K. Joseph. 2012. Ammonite zonation of the Jurassic rocks of the Gangta Bet area, Wagad region, eastern Kachchh, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 57: 129–133.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sneath, P.H.A., and R.R. Sokal. 1973. Numerical taxonomy—The principles and practice of numerical classification, 1–573. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Spath, L.R. 1927–1933. Revision of the Jurassic cephalopod fauna of Kachh (Cutch). Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologica Indica, New Series 9 (2): 1–945.

  • Waagen, W. 1873–1875. Jurassic fauna of Kutch. The Cephalopoda. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologia Indica, Series 9 (Calcutta 1: part I, 1–22, pls. 1–4 [1873]; part II, 23–76, pls. 5–14 [1875a]; part III, 77–106, pls. 15–24 [1875b]; part IV, 107–247, pls. 25–60 [1875c]).

  • Westermann, G.E.G. 1990. New developments in ecology of Jurassic-Cretaceous ammonoids. In Atti del Secondo Convegno Internazionale Fossili, Evolutione, Ambiente, eds. G. Pallini, F. Cecca, S. Cresta, and M. Santantonio, 459–478. Pergola: Centennial Committee Raffaele Piccinini.

    Google Scholar 

Download references


DKP, RD, and Prajna are grateful to the Manipal Center for Natural Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education for providing the facilities to work on the project and manuscript. The authors sincerely thank the reviewers Federico Olóriz and Alexandr Alifirov for their critical review of the manuscript and useful suggestions. DKP and RSS acknowledge the Department of Science and Technology (project no. EMR/2015/001574) for financial support to carry out the field work to collect the samples. MA gratefully acknowledges financial support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dhirendra K. Pandey.

Additional information

Handling editor: Christian Klug.

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pandey, D.K., Das, R., Alberti, M. et al. Phenetic classification of Kimmeridgian ammonites from the eastern Kachchh Basin, India. PalZ 93, 255–263 (2019).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Jurassic
  • India
  • Ammonites
  • Taxonomy
  • Phenetic classification