Skip to main content

Dicroidium bandelii sp. nov. (corystospermalean foliage) from the Permian of Jordan

Abstract

Dicroidium bandelii sp. nov. (Corystospermales) is described from the Um Irna Formation (Permian) of the Dead Sea Region, Jordan. The type and only specimen is a compressed frond fragment with cuticle. The new species is unique in showing pinnate frond architecture with elongate, lanceolate pinnae with a dense, near-parallel venation. In situ epifluorescence-microscopic analysis of the cuticle revealed evenly distributed, superficial stomata with differentiated lateral subsidiary cells typical of the genus. Epidermal and cuticular features readily distinguish D. bandelii from some superficially similar species of Ptilozamites or Thinnfeldia. Our report demonstrates that the diversity of Corystospermales in the unusual ‘mixed flora’ of the Permian palaeotropics is still greater than previously thought, and that the Um Irna Formation in particular holds a great potential for future palaeontological research.

Kurzfassung

Dicroidium bandelii sp. nov. (Corystospermales) wird aus der Um Irna-Formation (Perm) der Region Totes Meer in, Jordanien beschrieben. Der Holotyp ist ein Zusammendruck eines Teilstückes eines Wedelfragmentes unmittelbar oberhalb der Bifurkation. Die neue Art unterscheidet sich von bisher bekannten Dicroidium-Arten durch ihre einfach gefiederte Architektur mit länglich-lanzeolaten Fiedern, die eine dichte, gleichmäßige und fast parallele Nervatur zeigen. Die Untersuchung mit Epifluoreszenz-Mikroskopie zeigt, dass die Blattoberfläche gleichmäßig verteilte Spaltöffnungsapparate besitzt, deren pseudosyndetocheiler Bau mit stark differenzierten lateralen Nebenzellen typisch für die Gattung Dicroidium ist. Die Epidermal- und Kutikularmerkmale erlauben eine zweifelsfreie Abgrenzung von morphologisch entfernt ähnlichen Gattungen, wie z. B. Ptilozamites oder Thinnfeldia. Der Artenreichtum und die Formenvielfalt der permischen Corystospermales ist offensichtlich größer als bisher angenommen. Dies zeigt, dass die ungewöhnlichen und immer noch wenig bekannten Mischfloren der Um Irna-Formation großes Potenzial für zukünftige paläobotanische Forschung bieten.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  • Abu Hamad, A., and M. Bandel. 2004. Palaeobotany and palynostratigraphy of the Permo–Triassic in Jordan. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University Hamburg, 1–330. Hamburg.

  • Abu Hamad, A., H. Kerp, B. Vörding, and K. Bandel. 2008. A late Permian flora with Dicroidium from the Dead Sea region, Jordan. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 149: 85–130. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2007.10.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, J.M., and H.M. Anderson. 1983. Palaeoflora of Southern Africa—Molteno Formation. Part 1. Introduction/Part 2. Dicroidium, vol. 1. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

  • Anderson, J.M., H.M. Anderson, S. Archangelsky, M. Bamford, S. Chandra, M. Dettmann, R. Hill, S. McLoughlin, and O. Rösler. 1999. Patterns of Gondwana plant colonization and diversification. Journal of African Earth Sciences 28: 145–157. doi:10.1016/S0899-5362(98)00083-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Archangelsky, S. 1968. Studies on Triassic fossil plants from Argentina. IV. The leaf genus Dicroidium and its possible relation to Rhexoxylon stems. Palaeontology 11 (4): 500–515.

    Google Scholar 

  • Artabe, A.E., E.M. Morel, D.G. Ganuza, A.M. Zavattieri, and L.A. Spalletti. 2007. La paleoflora triásica de Potrerillos, provincia de Mendoza, Argentina. Ameghiniana 44 (2): 279–301.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baldoni, A.M. 1980. Revisión de las especies del género Xylopteris (Corystospermaceae) en el Triásico de Argentina. Australia y Sud África. Ameghiniana 17 (2): 135–155.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bandel, K., and A. Abu Hamad. 2013. Permian and Triassic strata of Jordan. In The Triassic System, eds. Tanner, L.H., J.A. Spielmann, and S.G. Lucas, 31–41. Albuquerque, NM: NMMNHS. (New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 61)

  • Bandel, K., and H. Khoury. 1981. Lithostratigraphy of the Triassic in Jordan. Facies 4: 1–26. doi:10.1007/BF02536584.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barboni, R., T.L. Dutra, and U.F. Faccini. 2016. Xylopteris (Frenguelli) Stipanicic and Bonetti in the middle–upper Triassic (Santa Maria Formation) of Brazil. Ameghiniana 53 (5): 599–622. doi:10.5710/AMGH.11.07.2016.2897.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berthelin, M., J. Broutin, H. Kerp, S. Crasquin-Soleau, J.P. Platel, and J. Roger. 2003. The Oman Gharif mixed paleoflora: a key tool for testing Permian Pangea reconstructions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 196: 85–98. doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00314-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bomfleur, B., and H. Kerp. 2010. Dicroidium diversity in the Upper Triassic of north Victoria Land, East Antarctica. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 160: 67–101. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2010.02.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bomfleur, B., I.H. Escapa, E.L. Taylor, and T.N. Taylor. 2012. Modified basal elements in Dicroidium fronds (Corystospermales). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 170: 15–26. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2011.10.012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cariglino, B., A.M. Zavattieri, P.R. Gutiérrez, and M.L. Balarino. 2016. The paleobotanical record of the Triassic Cerro de las Cabras Formation at its type locality, Potrerillos, Mendoza (Uspallata Group): an historical account and first record of fossil flora. Ameghiniana 53 (2): 184–204. doi:10.5710/AMGH.17.12.2015.2952.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • D’Angelo, J.A., L.B. Escudero, W. Volkheimer, and E.L. Zodrow. 2011. Chemometric analysis of functional groups in fossil remains of the Dicroidium flora (Cacheuta, Mendoza, Argentina): implications for kerogen formation. International Journal of Coal Geology 87 (2): 97–111. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2011.05.005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dill, H.G., A. Bechtel, R. Gratzer, and A.M.B. Abu Hamad. 2010. Deposition and alteration of carbonaceous series within a Neotethyan rift at the western boundary of the Arabian Plate: the Late Permian Um Irna Formation NW Jordan, a petroleum system. International Journal of Coal Geology 81 (1): 1–24. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2009.10.020.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • DiMichele, W.A., and R.W. Hook. 1992. Paleozoic terrestrial ecosystems. In Terrestrial Ecosystems Through Time, eds. A.K. Behrensmeyer, J.D. Damuth, W.A. DiMichele, R. Potts, H.D. Sues, and S.L. Wing, 206–325. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Escapa, I.H., E.L. Taylor, R. Cúneo, B. Bomfleur, J. Bergene, R. Serbet, and T.N. Taylor. 2011. Triassic floras of Antarctica: plant diversity and distribution in high paleolatitude communities. Palaios 26 (9): 522–544. doi:10.2110/palo.2010.p10-122r.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frenguelli, J. 1943. Contributiones al conocimiento de la flora del Gondwana Superior en la Argentina. XI-XIV. Notas del Museo de la Plata 8: 413–416.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gothan, W. 1912. Über die Gattung Thinnfeldia Ettinghausen. Abhandlungen der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft zu Nürnberg 19: 67–80.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gothan, W. 1954. Geobotanische Provinzen im Karbon und Perm. Forschungen und Fortschritte 28: 38–40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harris, T.M. 1932. The Fossil Flora of Scoresby Sound East Greenland. Part 2: Description of Seed Plants incertae sedis together with a Discussion of Certain Cycadophyte cuticles. Meddelelser om Grønland 85: 1–111.

    Google Scholar 

  • Holmes, W.B.K., and H.M. Anderson. 2005. The middle Triassic megafossil flora of the Basin Creek formation, Nymboida Coal Measures, New South Wales, Australia, Part 4. Umkomasiaceae. Dicroidium and affiliated fructifications. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 126: 1–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jacob, K., and C. Jacob. 1950. A preliminary account of the structure of the cuticles of Dicroidium (Thinnfeldia) fronds from the Mesozoic of Australia. Proceedings of the National Institute of Sciences of India 16: 101–126.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kerp, H., A. Abu Hamad, B. Vörding, and K. Bandel. 2006. Typical Triassic Gondwanan floral elements in the Upper Permian of the paleotropics. Geology 34 (4): 265–268. doi:10.1130/G22187.1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li, X.X. (ed.). 1995. Fossil Flora of China through the Geological Ages, English ed. Guangzhou: Guangdong Science and Technology Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Makhlouf, I.M., B.R. Turner, and A.M. Abed. 1991. Depositional facies and environments in the Permian Umm Irna Formation, Dead Sea area, Jordan. Sedimentary Geology 73: 117–139. doi:10.1016/0037-0738(91)90026-A.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Menendez, C.A. 1951. La Flora Mesozoica de la Formación Llantenes (Provincia de Mendoza). Revista del Instituto Nacional de Investigación de las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Botánicas 2: 147–261.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moisan, P. 2012. The study of cuticular and epidermal features in fossil plant impressions using silicone replicas for scanning electron microscopy. Palaeontologica Electronica 15: 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mustafa, H. 2003. A late Permian Cathaysian flora from the Dead Sea area, Jordan. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 2003 (1): 35–49.

    Google Scholar 

  • Popa, M.E., and J.C. McElwain. 2009. Bipinnate Ptilozamites nilssonii from Jameson Land and new considerations on the genera Ptilozamites Nathorst 1878 and Ctenozamites Nathorst 1886. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 153: 386–393. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2008.10.007.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pott, C., and S. McLoughlin. 2011. The Rhaetian flora of Rögla, northern Scania, Sweden. Palaeontology 54 (5): 1025–1051. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01090.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Powell, J.H., M.H. Stephenson, A. Nicora, R. Rettori, L.M. Borlenghi, and M.C. Perri. 2016. The Permian–Triassic boundary, Dead Sea, Jordan: transitional alluvial to marine depositional sequences and biostratigraphy. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 122: 23–40. doi:10.13130/2039-4942/7671.

    Google Scholar 

  • Retallack, G. 1977. Reconstructing Triassic vegetation of Eastern Australia: a new approach for the biostratigraphy of Gondwanaland. Alcheringa 1: 247–278. doi:10.1080/03115517708527763. (incl. Microfiche supplement).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shawabekeh, K. 1998. The Geology of Ma’in Area-Map Sheet No. (3155 III) Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, National Resources Authority-Geol. Directorate. Geological Mapping Division Bulletin 40: 1–74.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stephenson, M.H., and J.H. Powell. 2013. Palynology and alluvial structure in the Permian Umm Irna Formation, Dead Sea, Jordan. GeoArabia 18 (3): 17–60.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stephenson, M.H., and J.H. Powell. 2014. Selected spores and pollen from the Permian Umm Irna Formation, Jordan, and their stratigraphic utility in the Middle East and North Africa. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 120: 145–156.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, T.N., E.L. Taylor, and M. Krings. 2009. Palaeobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants, 2nd ed. London: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wagner, R.H. 1962. On a mixed Cathaysia and Gondwana flora from SE Anatolia (Turkey). Compte Rendu du 4ième Congrès International de Stratigraphie et de Géologie du Carbonifère (Heerlen) 3: 745–752.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wnuk, C. 1996. The development of floristic provinciality during the middle and late Paleozoic. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 90: 5–40. doi:10.1016/0034-6667(95)00025-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Jörg Schneider and Frank Scholze (Freiberg) for assistance in the field, as well as two anonymous reviewers and Dieter Uhl for their help and comments on the manuscript. Technical and financial support by the University of Jordan and by the German Science Foundation (DFG grants KE584/20-1 to HK and BB3131/1-1 to BB) is gratefully acknowledged. Abdalla Abu-Hamad wishes to thank the German Science Foundation for the financial support during his stays in Germany (DFG grants BA675/26-1-3 to Klaus Bandel and KE584/20-1 to HK). This manuscript is a contribution to the Emmy Noether Research Programme “Latitudinal Patterns in Plant Evolution”.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to P. Blomenkemper.

Additional information

Handling editor: Dieter Uhl.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Abu Hamad, A., Blomenkemper, P., Kerp, H. et al. Dicroidium bandelii sp. nov. (corystospermalean foliage) from the Permian of Jordan. PalZ 91, 641–648 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12542-017-0384-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12542-017-0384-2

Keywords

  • Permian–Triassic
  • Dicroidium
  • Corystospermales
  • Epifluorescence
  • Pangaea
  • Jordan

Schlüsselwörter

  • Perm–Trias
  • Dicroidium
  • Corystospermales
  • Epifluoreszenz
  • Pangaea
  • Jordanien