PalZ

, Volume 91, Issue 3, pp 409–426 | Cite as

A new species of Paramachaerodus (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) from the late Miocene of China and Bulgaria, and revision of Promegantereon Kretzoi, 1938 and Paramachaerodus Pilgrim, 1913

Research Paper

Abstract

New Machairodontinae material from the late Miocene localities of Hezheng (China) and Hadjidimovo (Bulgaria) represents a new species of Paramachaerodus Pilgrim. Both localities are similar in age and suggest that the new species had a very large geographic range extending from northwestern China adjacent to the Tibetan Plateau (Gansu Province) to southeastern Europe or probably to all of southern Europe. The new species—Paramachaerodus transasiaticus sp. nov is characterized by a combination of features of “Promegantereon” and Paramachaerodus. This specific morphology, as well as the age of the Hezheng and Hadjidimovo (early Turolian, after the European Land Mammal Ages) put the new species in intermediary position between “Promegantereon” and Paramachaerodus. The new felid material give grounds to discuss and revise in a new light the systematic and evolution of the “Promegantereon”–Paramachaerodus lineage, which should represent successive stages of one and the same genus: Paramachaerodus Pilgrim.

Keywords

Machairodontinae Paramachaerodus transasiaticus sp. nov. Promegantereon Late Miocene China Bulgaria 

Institutional abbreviations

IVPP (V)

Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Beijing, China

NMNH-A

Paleontological museum-Assenovgrad, branch of the National Museum of Natural History—Sofia, Bulgaria

NHMW

Naturhistorisches Museum Vienna, Austria

PMU (M)

Collection of the Evolution Museum of Uppsala University, Sweden

Anatomical abbreviations

C

Upper canine

c

Lower canine

I

Upper incisor

i

Lower incisor

M

Upper molar

m

Lower molar

PM

Upper premolar

pm

Lower premolar

DIA

Diastema

L

Mesiodistal length

W

Bucco-lingual width

H

Crown height

PadH

Height of the paraconid

PadL

Length of the paraconid

PrdH

Height of the protoconid

PrdL

Length of the protoconid

Measurement abbreviations

Cranium

BU

Maximum length of the tympanic bullae

LAL

Length from the rostral border of the lacrimal bone to the rostral border of the premaxilla

LB

Length from the caudal border of the foramen magnum to the rostral border of the premaxilla

LBO

Dorsal length from the caudal border of the occipital to the rostral border of the sagittal crest

LDT

Maximal dorsal length

LNB

Length from the rostral border of the sagittal crest to the caudal border of the nasals

LNO

Length from the caudal border of the nasals to the caudal border of the occipital

LO

Length from the rostral border of the lacrimal bone to the postorbital process of the zygomatic

LP

Length from the rostral border of the lacrimal bone to the postorbital process of the frontal bone

LPA

Length from the rostral border of the premaxilla to the caudal border of the palate

LPL

Length from the caudal border of the occipital to the rostral border of the lacrimal bone

LPP

Length from the caudal border of the palate to the caudal border of the foramen magnum

LPPF

Length from the caudal border of the occipital to the rostral border of the postorbital process of the frontal bone

LR

Length from the caudal border of the nasals to the rostral border of the premaxilla

LSD

Length of the upper dental series

TFL

Length from the postorbital process of the frontal bone to the caudal border of the occipital

WN

Width of the nasals

WSU

Skull width across buccal margins of the upper canines

WSP

Skull width across distal buccal margins of PM4 s

Measurement abbreviations

Mandible

CM1

Length from the mesial border of the lower canine to the distal border of m1

COM1

Length from the carnassial notch of m1 to the caudal border of the mandibular condyle

DMS

Depth of the mandibular symphysis distally of the lower canine

DMM

Depth of the mandible under m1 (labially)

HRM

Height of the mandibular ramus

LCOR

Length from the mesial border of the incisors to the caudal border of the coronoid process

LM

Length from the rostral border of the mandibular symphysis to the caudal border of the mandibular condyle

LSY

Length of the lower jugal series

MAM

Height from the dorsal border of the mandibular condyle to the central border of the angular process

TDM

Transverse diameter of the mandible at m1

Other abbreviations

HD

Hadjidimovo locality, Bulgaria

LX

Indication for localities in Linxia Basin

Kurzfassung

Neues Material von Machairodontinae aus den obermiozänen Fundstellen Hezheng (China) und Hadjidimovo (Bulgarien) repräsentiert eine neue Art, die der Gattung Paramachaerodus Pilgrim zugeordnet werden kann. Die beiden Fundstellen sind altersgleich und deuten darauf hin, dass die neue Art ein sehr ausgedehntes Areal von Nordwest-China, im benachbarten Hochland von Tibet (Provinz Gansu), bis Südost-Europa oder möglicherweise auch ganz Südeuropa besiedelt hat. Die neue Art – Paramachaerodus transasiaticus sp. nov. – wird durch eine Kombination der Merkmale von Promegantereon und Paramachaerodus charakterisiert. Sowohl die spezifische Morphologie als auch das Alter von Hezheng und Hadjidimovo (Unteres Turolium, nach der europäischen Landsäugetier-Chronologie) stellen die neue Art in eine Zwischenposition zwischen Promegantereon und Paramachaerodus. Das neue Feliden-Material bietet eine Diskussionsgrundlage und rückt die Systematik und Evolution der Abstammungsgruppe PromegantereonParamachaerodus in ein anderes Licht, die nachfolgende Stadien von ein und derselben Gattung (Paramachaerodus Pilgrim) repräsentieren soll.

Schlüsselwörter

Machairodontinae Paramachaerodus transasiaticus sp. nov. Promegantereon spätes Miozän China Bulgarien 

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Copyright information

© Paläontologische Gesellschaft 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and PaleoanthropologyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.National Museum of Natural HistoryBulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria

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