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New callipurbeckiid genus (Ginglymodi: Semionotiformes) from the Tithonian (Late Jurassic) of Canjuers, France

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Abstract

Ginglymodian fishes are abundant and diverse in Upper Jurassic limestones of Germany, but rarer in coeval sequences in France. Only a single ginglymodian is so far known from the Tithonian at Canjuers. Our study of this excellently preserved specimen revealed that it represents a new taxon †Occitanichthys canjuersensis gen. et sp. nov., which is retrieved in a cladistic analysis as a member of the semionotiform family †Callipurbeckiidae. Additionally, two specimens among fishes from the Middle Purbeck Beds at Swanage referred to †Callipurbeckia minor were found to represent the new callipurbeckiid taxon. The new taxon inhabited the epicontinental seas that covered most of Europe connecting the Tethys with the North Atlantic during Jurassic and Cretaceous, and its minimum biochron ranges from the Early Tithonian to the Early Cretaceous. After incorporation of the new and recently described taxa and the re-evaluation and addition of morphological characters, our cladistic analysis recovered a somewhat different pattern of relationships compared with previous phylogenetic hypotheses for Ginglymodi. Mainly, in the new topology, a monophyletic †Lepidotidae includes the Jurassic genera †Lepidotes and †Scheenstia, and the Tithonian–Berriasian †Camerichthys from Spain, which has been classified in †Semionotiformes. Among semionotiforms, our results retrieved the family †Macrosemiidae as the sister group of †Semionotidae occupying a more distal position within the clade †Semionotiformes than previously thought.

Kurzfassung

Die Fische der Ginglymodi sind im Oberjura von Deutschland weit verbreitet, in gleichaltrigen Schichten Frankreichs hingegen eher selten vorkommend. Nur ein Exemplar der Ginglymodi ist bisher aus dem Tithon von Canjuers in Frankreich bekannt. Unsere Untersuchungen ergaben für dieses gut erhaltenen Stück ein neues Taxon: †Occitanichthys canjuersensis gen. et sp. nov., welches nach kladistischer Analyse innerhalb der †Semionotiformes der Familie der †Callipurbeckiidae zugeordnet werden kann. Zusätzlich zeigte sich, dass zwei Exemplare aus dem Mittleren Purbeck in Swanage, welche als †Callipurbeckia minor beschrieben wurden, weitere Vertreter dieses neuen callipurbeckiid Taxons darstellen. Das neue Taxon bewohnte das Epikontinentalmeer, welches während Jura und Kreide einen Großteil Europas bedeckte und die Tethys mit dem Nordatlantik verband. Die stratigraphische Reichweite des neuen Taxons erstreckt sich mindestens vom Frühen Tithon bis zur Frühkreide. Nach der Einordnung des neu beschriebenen Taxons, der Re-Evaluierung und dem Hinzufügen neuer morphologischer Merkmale, ergaben unsere kladistischen Analysen ein neues Verwandschaftsmuster, verglichen mit früheren phylogenetischen Hypothesen für die Teilklasse der Ginglymodi. In erster Line konnte eine neue Topologie festgestellt werden, bei welcher sich †Lepidotidae als monophyletische Gruppe darstellte, welche die Genera †Lepidotes und †Scheenstia und aus dem Tithonium-Berriasium Spaniens †Camerichthys umfasst. Zuvor wurde †Camerichthys den Semionotiformes zugeordnet. Laut unseren Untersuchungen ist unter den †Semionotiformes die Familie der †Macrosemiidae die Schwestergruppe der †Semionotidae und erhält somit eine distalere Stellung innerhalb der †Semionotiformes als vorher gedacht.

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Acknowledgments

Special thanks are due to the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle in Paris and the curators M. Véran, H. Lelièvre and G. Clément, who lent the specimen MNHN CNJ 89 for study, and K. Peyer for her mediation for the return of the specimen. M. Richter, E. Bernard and Z. Johanson are thanked for access to the collection and assistance during work at the Natural History Museum in London. We are very grateful to K. Schröder and O.W.M. Rauhut for discussions and assistance during the work, to H. Tischlinger for his valuable work on UV photography and the two reviewers D.D. Bermúdez-Rochas and L. Cavin for their very helpful comments. Financial support for this study was provided by the German Research Foundation (DFG LO1405/3), the European Commission’s Research Infrastructure Action (SYNTHESYS FR-TAF 2079) and the Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich (LMU Studi_forscht@GEO W14_F2).

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López-Arbarello, A., Wencker, L.C.M. New callipurbeckiid genus (Ginglymodi: Semionotiformes) from the Tithonian (Late Jurassic) of Canjuers, France. PalZ 90, 543–560 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12542-016-0312-x

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