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Occurrence of the Gomphotherium angustidens group in China, based on a revision of Gomphotherium connexum (Hopwood, 1935) and Gomphotherium shensiensis Chang and Zhai, 1978: continental correlation of Gomphotherium species across the Palearctic

Abstract

In this paper, we restudy previously reported material of Gomphotherium connexum and G. shensiensis from China. G. connexum is characterized by the strong posterior pretrite central conules of the upper molars, which are larger than the corresponding anterior ones (at least in the second loph), the narrow interloph(id)s, the high central conules, and the narrow contour of m3. Gomphotherium cf. shensiensis (here is attributed to G. connexum) from the Junggar Basin is more derived than the type material of G. connexum in larger size and heavier cementum. G. connexum is very similar to G. angustidens, which was widely distributed in the Middle Miocene (MN6–8) of Europe. Gomphotherium shensiensis (here is attributed to G. cf. subtapiroideum) shows crest-like elements in the teeth crowns. The posttrite lophs are subdivided and anteroposteriorly compressed, and the interlophs are relatively anteroposteriorly wide. These features are similar to G. subtapiroideum, which occurred in the later Early Miocene to the earlier Late Miocene (MN5–9) of Europe. This revision of Chinese Gomphotherium demonstrates strong similarities in Gomphotherium species between eastern and western Eurasia, representing a continental diffusion of Gomphotherium species across the Palearctic region.

Kurzfassung

In dieser Studie re-evaluieren wir bereits früher beschriebenes Material von Gomphotherium connexum und G.shensiensis" aus China. Gomphotherium connexum ist durch stark ausgeprägte, posteriore prätrite Zentral-Conuli der oberen Molaren, die (zumindest am zweiten Joch) größer sind als die entsprechenden anterioren Gegenstücke, durch anteroposterior komprimierte Täler, hohe zentrale Conuli sowie durch das schmale Profil des m3 gekennzeichnet. Gomphotherium cf. „shensiensis" (wird hier G. connexum zugeschrieben) aus dem Junggar Basin ist im Vergleich zu G. connexum stärker abgeleitet, was sich in einer Zunahme der allgemeinen Körpergröße und in stärker ausgeprägtem Zahnzement im Vergleich zum Typus-Material äußert. Gomphotherium connexum ähnelt G. angustidens, einem im mittleren Miozän (MN6–8) in Europa weit verbreiteten Taxon, stark. Gomphotheriumshensiensis" (wird hier G. cf. subtapiroideum zugeschrieben) zeigt eher kammartige Elemente in seinen Zahnkronen. Die postriten Zahnjoche sind unterteilt und anteroposterior komprimiert, während die Täler anteroposterior relativ breit sind. Diese Eigenschaften sind ähnlich wie G. subtapiroideum, das ebenfalls im späteren frühen Miozän bis früheren späten Miozän (MN5–9) Europas vorkommt. Die Revision von Gomphotherium aus China lässt starke Ähnlichkeiten bei Gomphotherien-Arten zwischen dem östlichen und westlichen Eurasien erkennen, was eine kontinentale Verbreitung von Gomphotherium-Spezies quer durch die paläarktische Region zeigt.

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Abbreviations

IVPP:

Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Beijing, China

MNHN:

Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, France

NHMW:

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna, Austria

PMU:

Palaeontological Museum, Uppsala, Sweden

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Acknowledgments

We thank P. Tassy and U.B. Göhlich for much help in comparing European specimens and providing literature, and Z.-X. Qiu, G.-F. Chen, T. Deng, Z.-D. Qiu, J. Ye, and J.-J. Zheng for useful advice and various types of assistance. We thank G. Markov and two anonymous reviewers for many suggestions to improve the article. We thank D. Wolf and M. Aiglstorfer for translating the abstract to German. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Number 2012CB821900), the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant Number XDB03020104), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Numbers 41372001, 41430102, 41202017), and the Key Laboratory of Economic Stratigraphy and Palaeogeography, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology).

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Wang, SQ., Duangkrayom, J. & Yang, XW. Occurrence of the Gomphotherium angustidens group in China, based on a revision of Gomphotherium connexum (Hopwood, 1935) and Gomphotherium shensiensis Chang and Zhai, 1978: continental correlation of Gomphotherium species across the Palearctic. Paläontol Z 89, 1073–1086 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12542-015-0270-8

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Keywords

  • Gomphotherium angustidens
  • Gomphotherium subtapiroideum
  • Systematics
  • Proboscidean
  • Miocene

Schlu¨sselwo¨rter

  • Gomphotherium angustidens
  • Gomphotherium subtapiroideum
  • Systematik
  • Proboscidea
  • Miozän