Pores generated in inside of a Nickel-Alumina FGM (functionally graded material) fabricated by pressureless sintering method because of unperfected sintering. These pores change the mechanical properties of the material. To predict accurately variations of the mechanical property, there is a need for accurate measurement of porosity. Conventional method of measuring the porosity measures the outer diameter of the cylindrical specimen and calculated bulk density using it. However, this method did not consider an internal deformation of the specimen, thus the accuracy of its method is lowered. To measure a more accurate bulk density of each layer of the porous FGM than the conventional method, a method using Individual specimen and a method using the Image Processing of MATLAB (IPM) were proposed. To confirm accuracy of the proposed method, the bulk density of the entire FGM calculated by the proposed method was compared with the bulk density of the entire FGM measured by Archimedes' principle. In the comparison results, the result of the method using the IPM was closer to the result of the method using Archimedes principle than the result of the method using the Individual specimen. Thus, this author concludes that the method using IPM is more suitable for measurement of the bulk density of each layer of the FGM than the method using the individual specimens.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
- D :
- M :
- W :
- V :
- ρ water :
Density of water
- W 1 :
The dry weight
- W 2 :
The weight in the water of the water-saturated sample
- W 3 :
The weight of the water-saturated sample in air
Suresh, S. and Mortensen, A., “Fundamentals of Functionally-Graded Materials: Processing and Thermomechanical Behaviour of Graded Metals and Metal-Ceramic Composites,” The University Press, Cambridge, pp. 16–33, pp. 82–95, 1998.
Kim, H. S. and Shin, K. H., “Material Pixel-based Process Planning for Layered Manufacturing of Heterogeneous Objects,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 15, No. 11, pp. 2421–2427, 2014.
Zheng, G., Zhao, J., Li, A., Cui, X., and Zhou, Y., “Failure Mechanisms of Graded Ceramic Tool in Ultra High Speed Dry Milling of Inconel 718,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 943–949, 2013.
Park, J. H., Lee, J. C., Ryu, S. H., Jung, K. B., Song, H. B., et al., “Crack-Free Joint in a Ni-Al2O3 FGM System using Three-Dimensional Modeling,” Materials Transactions, Vol. 50, No. 7, pp. 1875–1880, 2009.
Lee, P. H., Chang, E., Yu, S., Lee, S. W., Kim, I. W., Park, S., and Chung, H., “Modification and Characteristics of Biodegradable Polymer Suitable for Selective Laser Sintering,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 1079–1086, 2013.
Ryu, S. H., Park, J. H., Lee, C. S., Lee, J. C., Ahn, S. H., and Oh, S. T., “Experimental Measurement of Coefficient of Thermal Expansion for Graded Layers in Ni-Al2O3 FGM Joints for Accurate Residual Stress Analysis,” Materials Transactions, Vol. 50, No. 6, pp. 1553–1557, 2009.
Kim, J., Mun, S. C., Ko, H. U., Kim, K. B., Khondoker, M. A. H., and Zhai, L., “Review of Microwave Assisted Manufacturing Technologies,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 13, No. 12, pp. 2263–2272, 2012.
Lee, C. M., Woo, W. S., Baek, J. T., and Kim, E. J., “Laser and Arc Manufacturing Processes: A Review,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 17, No. 7, pp. 973–985, 2016.
Lee, J. C., Park, J. H., Ryu, S. H., Hong, H. J., Riu, D. H., et al., “Reduction of Functionally-Graded Material Layers for Si3N4-Al2O3 System using 3-Dimensional Modeling,” Materials Transactions, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 829–834, 2008.
Ahn, D. G., “Direct Metal Additive Manufacturing Processes and their Sustainable Applications for Green Technology: A Review,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.-Green Tech., Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 381–395, 2016.
Sung, J. W., Kim, K. H., and Kang, M. C., “Effects of Graphene Nanoplatelet Contents on Material and Machining Properties of GNP-Dispersed Al2O3 Ceramics for Micro-Electric Discharge Machining,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.-Green Tech., Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 247–252, 2016.
Man, J., Zhang, S., Luan, X., Hai, Y., and Cai, G., “Residual Stresses of α-Al2O3/Ni Nano-Composite Coating Prepared by Automatic Brush Plating Technique,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.-Green Tech., Vol. 4, No. 1, 19–25, 2017.
Lee, H., Lim, C. H. J., Low, M. J., Tham, N., Murukeshan, V. M., and Kim, Y. J., “Lasers in Additive Manufacturing: A Review,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.-Green Tech., Vol. 4. No. 3, pp. 307–322, 2017.
Shabana, Y. M., Bruck, H. A., Pines, M. L., and Kruft, J. G., “Modeling the Evolution of Stress due to Differential Shrinkage in Powder-Processed Functionally Graded Metal-Ceramic Composites during Pressureless Sintering,” International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 43, pp. 7852–7868, 2006.
Kuila, U., McCarty, D. K., Derkowski, A., Fischer, T. B., and Prasad, M., “Total Porosity Measurement in Gas Shales by the Water Immersion Porosimetry (WIP) Method,” Fuel, Vol. 117, pp. 1115–1129, 2014.
MatWeb Material Property Data. Available from: www.matweb.com
Weast, R. C., “CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 53rd Edition,” CRC Press, pp. F4, 1973.
About this article
Cite this article
Lee, JC., Ahn, SH. Bulk density measurement of porous functionally graded materials. Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 19, 31–37 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12541-018-0004-4
- Functionally graded materials (FGM)
- Porous composite
- Density measurement
- Image processing