Skip to main content

Bulk density measurement of porous functionally graded materials

Abstract

Pores generated in inside of a Nickel-Alumina FGM (functionally graded material) fabricated by pressureless sintering method because of unperfected sintering. These pores change the mechanical properties of the material. To predict accurately variations of the mechanical property, there is a need for accurate measurement of porosity. Conventional method of measuring the porosity measures the outer diameter of the cylindrical specimen and calculated bulk density using it. However, this method did not consider an internal deformation of the specimen, thus the accuracy of its method is lowered. To measure a more accurate bulk density of each layer of the porous FGM than the conventional method, a method using Individual specimen and a method using the Image Processing of MATLAB (IPM) were proposed. To confirm accuracy of the proposed method, the bulk density of the entire FGM calculated by the proposed method was compared with the bulk density of the entire FGM measured by Archimedes' principle. In the comparison results, the result of the method using the IPM was closer to the result of the method using Archimedes principle than the result of the method using the Individual specimen. Thus, this author concludes that the method using IPM is more suitable for measurement of the bulk density of each layer of the FGM than the method using the individual specimens.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Abbreviations

D :

Density

M :

Mass

W :

Weight

V :

Volume

ρ water :

Density of water

W 1 :

The dry weight

W 2 :

The weight in the water of the water-saturated sample

W 3 :

The weight of the water-saturated sample in air

References

  1. 1.

    Suresh, S. and Mortensen, A., “Fundamentals of Functionally-Graded Materials: Processing and Thermomechanical Behaviour of Graded Metals and Metal-Ceramic Composites,” The University Press, Cambridge, pp. 16–33, pp. 82–95, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Kim, H. S. and Shin, K. H., “Material Pixel-based Process Planning for Layered Manufacturing of Heterogeneous Objects,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 15, No. 11, pp. 2421–2427, 2014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Zheng, G., Zhao, J., Li, A., Cui, X., and Zhou, Y., “Failure Mechanisms of Graded Ceramic Tool in Ultra High Speed Dry Milling of Inconel 718,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 943–949, 2013.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Park, J. H., Lee, J. C., Ryu, S. H., Jung, K. B., Song, H. B., et al., “Crack-Free Joint in a Ni-Al2O3 FGM System using Three-Dimensional Modeling,” Materials Transactions, Vol. 50, No. 7, pp. 1875–1880, 2009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Lee, P. H., Chang, E., Yu, S., Lee, S. W., Kim, I. W., Park, S., and Chung, H., “Modification and Characteristics of Biodegradable Polymer Suitable for Selective Laser Sintering,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 1079–1086, 2013.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Ryu, S. H., Park, J. H., Lee, C. S., Lee, J. C., Ahn, S. H., and Oh, S. T., “Experimental Measurement of Coefficient of Thermal Expansion for Graded Layers in Ni-Al2O3 FGM Joints for Accurate Residual Stress Analysis,” Materials Transactions, Vol. 50, No. 6, pp. 1553–1557, 2009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Kim, J., Mun, S. C., Ko, H. U., Kim, K. B., Khondoker, M. A. H., and Zhai, L., “Review of Microwave Assisted Manufacturing Technologies,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 13, No. 12, pp. 2263–2272, 2012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Lee, C. M., Woo, W. S., Baek, J. T., and Kim, E. J., “Laser and Arc Manufacturing Processes: A Review,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 17, No. 7, pp. 973–985, 2016.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Lee, J. C., Park, J. H., Ryu, S. H., Hong, H. J., Riu, D. H., et al., “Reduction of Functionally-Graded Material Layers for Si3N4-Al2O3 System using 3-Dimensional Modeling,” Materials Transactions, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 829–834, 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ahn, D. G., “Direct Metal Additive Manufacturing Processes and their Sustainable Applications for Green Technology: A Review,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.-Green Tech., Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 381–395, 2016.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Sung, J. W., Kim, K. H., and Kang, M. C., “Effects of Graphene Nanoplatelet Contents on Material and Machining Properties of GNP-Dispersed Al2O3 Ceramics for Micro-Electric Discharge Machining,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.-Green Tech., Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 247–252, 2016.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Man, J., Zhang, S., Luan, X., Hai, Y., and Cai, G., “Residual Stresses of α-Al2O3/Ni Nano-Composite Coating Prepared by Automatic Brush Plating Technique,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.-Green Tech., Vol. 4, No. 1, 19–25, 2017.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Lee, H., Lim, C. H. J., Low, M. J., Tham, N., Murukeshan, V. M., and Kim, Y. J., “Lasers in Additive Manufacturing: A Review,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.-Green Tech., Vol. 4. No. 3, pp. 307–322, 2017.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Shabana, Y. M., Bruck, H. A., Pines, M. L., and Kruft, J. G., “Modeling the Evolution of Stress due to Differential Shrinkage in Powder-Processed Functionally Graded Metal-Ceramic Composites during Pressureless Sintering,” International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 43, pp. 7852–7868, 2006.

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Kuila, U., McCarty, D. K., Derkowski, A., Fischer, T. B., and Prasad, M., “Total Porosity Measurement in Gas Shales by the Water Immersion Porosimetry (WIP) Method,” Fuel, Vol. 117, pp. 1115–1129, 2014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    MatWeb Material Property Data. Available from: www.matweb.com

  17. 17.

    Weast, R. C., “CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 53rd Edition,” CRC Press, pp. F4, 1973.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sung-Hoon Ahn.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lee, JC., Ahn, SH. Bulk density measurement of porous functionally graded materials. Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 19, 31–37 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12541-018-0004-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Functionally graded materials (FGM)
  • Porous composite
  • Density measurement
  • Image processing