Skip to main content

Pulse width modulation as energy-saving strategy of shape memory alloy based smart soft composite actuator

Abstract

This paper presents electrical power consumption decreased in actuating a shape memory alloy (SMA) based smart soft composite (SSC) actuator using pulse width modulation (PWM). A DC current input generator and a PWM signal generator were designed to apply inputs to SSCs. Experiments were carried out on two types of SSC: one conventional, using a single SMA wire, and the other using multiple wires. The blocking force was measured to analyze the performance of the SSC. The experiments demonstrated that the PWM signal was able to reduce the actuation energy while showing the same performance as an analog current input. These results suggest that a PWM signal could be an alternative candidate for the input paradigm for SSCs to reduce energy consumption, expanding the uses of SSC actuators in robotic applications.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Otsuka, K. and Wayman, C. M., “Shape Memory Materials,” Cambridge University Press, 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Jani, J. M., Leary, M., Subic, A., and Gibson, M. A., “A Review of Shape Memory Alloy Research, Applications and Opportunities,” Materials & Design, Vol. 56, pp. 1078–1113, 2014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Baz, A., Chen, T., and Ro, J., “Shape Control of Nitinol-Reinforced Composite Beams,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 31, No. 8, pp. 631–642, 2000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Büttgenbach, S., Bütefisch, S., Leester-Schädel, M., and Wogersien, A., “Shape Memory Microactuators,” Microsystem Technologies, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 165–170, 2001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Ghomshei, M., Tabandeh, N., Ghazavi, A., and Gordaninejad, F., “A Three-Dimensional Shape Memory Alloy/Elastomer Actuator,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 5, pp. 441–449, 2001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Icardi, U., “Large Bending Actuator Made with SMA Contractile Wires: Theory, Numerical Simulation and Experiments,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 259–267, 2001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Chen, Q. and Levy, C., “Vibration Analysis and Control of Flexible Beam by Using Smart Damping Structures,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 395–406, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Wang, Y., Zhou, L., Wang, Z., Huang, H., and Ye, L., “Analysis of Internal Stresses Induced by Strain Recovery in a Single SMA Fiber-Matrix Composite,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 42, No. 5, pp. 1135–1143, 2011.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Ahn, S.-H., Lee, K.-T., Kim, H.-J., Wu, R., Kim, J.-S., and Song, S.-H., “Smart Soft Composite: An Integrated 3D Soft Morphing Structure Using Bend-Twist Coupling of Anisotropic Materials,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 631–634, 2012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Kim, H.-J., Song, S.-H., and Ahn, S.-H., “A Turtle-Like Swimming Robot Using a Smart Soft Composite (SSC) Structure,” Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 22, No. 1, Paper No. 014007, 2012.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Rodrigue, H., Wang, W., Bhandari, B., Han, M.-W., and Ahn, S.-H., “Cross-Shaped Twisting Structure Using SMA-Based Smart Soft Composite,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.-Green Tech., Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 153–156, 2014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Wang, W., Rodrigue, H., and Ahn, S.-H., “Smart Soft Composite Actuator with Shape Retention Capability Using Embedded Fusible Alloy Structures,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 78, pp. 507–514, 2015.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Han, M.-W., Rodrigue, H., Cho, S., Song, S.-H., Wang, W., Chu, W.-S., and Ahn, S.-H., “Woven Type Smart Soft Composite for Soft Morphing Car Spoiler,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 86, pp. 285–298, 2016.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Rodrigue, H., Wang, W., Bhandari, B., Han, M.-W., and Ahn, S.-H., “SMA-Based Smart Soft Composite Structure Capable of Multiple Modes of Actuation,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 82, pp. 152–158, 2015.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Fujita, H., “Studies of Micro Actuators in Japan,” Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1559–1564, 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Kuribayashi, K., “Millimeter-Sized Joint Actuator Using a Shape Memory Alloy,” Sensors and Actuators, Vol. 20, Nos. 1-2, pp. 57–64, 1989.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Bellouard, Y., Clavel, R., Gotthardt, R., Bidaux, J., and Sidler, T., “A New Concept of Monolithic Shape Memory Alloy Micro-Devices Used in Micro-Robotics,” Proc. of International Conference on New Actuators-Bremen, pp. 502–505, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Van Brussel, H., Peirs, J., Reynaerts, D., Delchambre, A., Reinhart, G., et al., “Assembly of Microsystems,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 451–472, 2000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Kim, B., Lee, M. G., Lee, Y. P., Kim, Y., and Lee, G., “An Earthworm-Like Micro Robot Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuator,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 125, No. 2, pp. 429–437, 2006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Caldwell, D. and Taylor, P., “Artificial Muscles as Robotic Actuators,” Proc. of IFAC Robot Control Conference (Syroc 88), pp. 401–406, 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Bundhoo, V. and Park, E. J., “Design of an Artificial Muscle Actuated Finger towards Biomimetic Prosthetic Hands,” Proc. of 12th International Conference on Advanced Robotics, pp. 368–375, 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Safak, K. K. and Adams, G. G., “Modeling and Simulation of an Artificial Muscle and Its Application to Biomimetic Robot Posture Control,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 225–243, 2002.

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Rodrigue, H., Wei, W., Bhandari, B., and Ahn, S.-H., “Fabrication of Wrist-Like SMA-Based Actuator by Double Smart Soft Composite Casting,” Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 24, No. 12, Paper No. 125003, 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Cho, K.-J., Koh, J.-S., Kim, S., Chu, W.-S., Hong, Y., and Ahn, S.-H., “Review of Manufacturing Processes for Soft Biomimetic Robots,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 171–181, 2009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Baz, A., Imam, K., and McCoy, J., “Active Vibration Control of Flexible Beams Using Shape Memory Actuators,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 140, No. 3, pp. 437–456, 1990.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Featherstone, R. and Teh, Y. H., “Improving the Speed of Shape Memory Alloy Actuators by Faster Electrical Heating,” Proc. of the Ninth International Symposium on Experimental Robotics, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Qiu, J., Tani, J., Osanai, D., and Urushiyama, Y., “High-Speed Actuation of Shape Memory Alloy,” Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 4235, pp. 188–197, 2001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Carreras, G., Casciati, F., Casciati, S., Isalgue, A., Marzi, A., and Torra, V., “Fatigue Laboratory Tests toward the Design of SMA Portico-Braces,” Smart Structures and Systems, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 41–57, 2011.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Eggeler, G., Hornbogen, E., Yawny, A., Heckmann, A., and Wagner, M., “Structural and Functional Fatigue of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 378, No. 1, pp. 24–33, 2004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Erbstoeszer, B., Armstrong, B., Taya, M., and Inoue, K., “Stabilization of the Shape Memory Effect in NiTi: An Experimental Investigation,” Scripta Materialia, Vol. 42, No. 12, pp. 1145–1150, 2000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    He, Y. and Sun, Q., “Frequency-Dependent Temperature Evolution in NiTi Shape Memory Alloy under Cyclic Loading,” Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 19, No. 11, Paper No. 115014, 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Tang, W. and Sandström, R., “Analysis of the Influence of Cycling on TiNi Shape Memory Alloy Properties,” Materials & Design, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 103–113, 1993.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Barr, M. and Modulation, P. W., “Embedded Systems Programming,” Embedded Systems Programming, Vol. 14, No. 10, pp. 103–104, 2001.

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Holmes, D. G. and Lipo, T. A., “Pulse Width Modulation for Power Converters: Principles and Practice,” John Wiley & Sons, 2003.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    LukiC, Z., Wang, K., and Prodic, A., “High-Frequency Digital Controller for DC-DC Converters Based on Multi-Bit/SplSigma/-/Spl Delta/Pulse-Width Modulation,” Proc. of 22th Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, pp. 35–40, 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Hoang, K. D. and Ahn, H.-J., “Both Energy and Cost-Effective Semi-Active RFC (Reaction Force Compensation) Method for Linear Motor Motion Stage,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.-Green Tech., Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 73–78, 2017.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Ma, N. and Song, G., “Control of Shape Memory Alloy Actuator Using Pulse Width Modulation,” Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 12, No. 5, Paper No. 712, 2003.

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Song, G. and Ma, N., “Control of Shape Memory Alloy Actuators Using Pulse-Width Pulse-Frequency (PWPF) Modulation,” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 15–22, 2003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Mosley, M., Mavroidis, C., and Pfeiffer, C., “Design and Dynamics of a Shape Memory Alloy Wire Bundle Actuator,” Proc. of the ANS, 8th Topical Meeting on Robotics and Remote Systems, 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Mosley, M. J. and Mavroidis, C., “Experimental Nonlinear Dynamics of a Shape Memory Alloy Wire Bundle Actuator,” Transactions-American Society of Mechanical Engineers Journal of Dynamic Systems Measurement and Control, Vol. 123, No. 1, pp. 103–112, 2001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    De Laurentis, K. J., Fisch, A., Nikitczuk, J., and Mavroidis, C., “Optimal Design of Shape Memory Alloy Wire Bundle Actuators,” Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 2363–2368, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Cho, K.-J. and Asada, H., “Multi-Axis SMA Actuator Array for Driving Anthropomorphic Robot Hand,” Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1356–1361, 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Danalloy, Inc., “Technical Characteristics of FLEXINOL Actator Wires,” http://www.dynalloy.com/pdfs/TCF1140.pdf (Accessed 25 APR 2017)

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Guide, M. U. S., “The Mathworks, Inc.,” Natick, MA, Vol. 5, 1998.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sung-Hoon Ahn.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kim, M., Shin, YJ., Lee, JY. et al. Pulse width modulation as energy-saving strategy of shape memory alloy based smart soft composite actuator. Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 18, 895–901 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12541-017-0106-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Energy consumption
  • Pulse width modulation
  • Shape memory alloy
  • Smart soft composite