Skip to main content

Modeling and performance analysis of rock drill drifters for rock stiffness


Rock drill operations are classified as top hammer drilling (THD), down-the-hole drilling, or rotary drilling. The rock drill in the THD method consists of a percussion drill rig module and a drill bit. The percussion drill rig module consists of a drifter, feed drive, and auto rod changer. In particular, the drifter generates the impact and rotational force for drilling. The purpose of this study was to analyze the hydraulic circuits of the drifter and to develop an analysis tool for analyzing the impact capability. This study also analyzed the capability of the drifter with regard to the penetration rate and varying kinetic energy, which is dependent on rock stiffness, using the developed analysis tool.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


A PS :

area of impact piston in supply port

A P4 :

area of impact piston in forth chamber

A V3 :

area of shuttle valve in third chamber

A VSb :

area of shuttle valve in chamber (V Sb )

A Da :

area of damping piston in first damping chamber

A Db :

area of damping piston in second damping chamber

β :

bulk Modulus of the fluid

c :

manufacturing error

c P :

friction coefficient of impact piston

c V :

friction coefficient of shuttle valve

c D :

friction coefficient of damping piston

e :

eccentricity of spool

F load :

load force

F r :

recoiling force

m P :

mass of impact piston

m V :

mass of shuttle valve

m D :

mass of damping piston

P P4 :

pressure of impact piston in forth chamber

P PS :

pressure of impact piston in supply port

P V3 :

pressure of shuttle valve in third chamber

P VS :

pressure of shuttle valve in supply port

Q PS :

flow rate from supply port to impact piston

Q VSa :

flow rate from supply port to shuttle valve

Q Da :

flow rate from supply port to damping piston

x D :

displacement of damping piston

x P :

displacement of impact piston

x V :

displacement of shuttle valve


  1. 1.

    Lundberg, B., “Computer Modeling and Simulation of Percussive Drilling of Rock; Comprehensive Rock Engineering: Principles, Practice and Projects,” Pergamon Press, Vol. 4, pp. 137–154, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Chiang, L. E. and Elias, D. A., “Modeling Impact in Down-the-Hole Rock Drilling,” Int. J. Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 37, pp. 599–613, 2000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Song, C. H. and Shin, D. Y., “A Study on Pneumatic Characteristics of the Down the Hole Hammer,” Proc. of the KSPE Autumn Conference, pp. 599–600, 2010.

  4. 4.

    Oh, J. Y., Lee, G. H., and Song, C. S., “A Study on the Analysis of Hydraulic Circuit of a Rockdrill Drifter,” Proc. of the KFPS Spring Conference, pp. 70–75, 2011.

  5. 5.

    Kim, K. Y., Kim, C. Y., and Kim, K. S., “Assessment of Hydraulic Drilling Data on Homogeneous Rock Mass,” Journal of Korean Society for Rock Mechanics, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 480–490, 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Kahraman, S., Bilgin, N., and Feridunoglu, C., “Dominant Rock Properties Affecting the Penetration Rate of Percussive Drills,” Int. J. Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 40, pp. 711–723, 2003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Sung, W. J., “Performance Analysis of a Hydraulic Breaker Considering Ground Conditions,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Precision Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 2002.

  8. 8.

    Shin, D. Y. and Kwon, K. B., “A Study on Performance Optimization of a Hydraulic Breaker,” Journal of Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 677–682, 2011.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Giuffrida, A. and Laforgia, D., “Modelling and Simulation of a Hydraulic Breaker,” Int. J. Fluid Power, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 47–56, 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Temrock Corp., “Rock Excavation Handbook,” SandvikTamrock Corp. Press, pp. 62–77, 1999.

  11. 11.

    Cavanough, G. L., Kochanek, M., Cunningham, J. B., and Gipps, I. D., “A Self-Optimizing Control System for Hard Rock Percussive Drilling,” IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 153–157, 2008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Li, X., Rupert, G., Summers, D. A., Santi, P., and Liu, D., “Analysis of Impact Hammer Rebound to Estimate Rock Drillability,” Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 1–13, 2000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Ryu, B. J., Han, H. H., Lee, G. S., Ahn, K. Y., and Lee, C. R., “Dynamic Response Analysis of a Cantilevered Beam due to an Elastic Impact,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 539–547, 2010.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Joo-Young Oh.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Oh, JY., Lee, GH., Kang, HS. et al. Modeling and performance analysis of rock drill drifters for rock stiffness. Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 13, 2187–2193 (2012).

Download citation


  • Damping piston
  • Impact piston
  • Rock drill drifter
  • Rock stiffness
  • Shuttle valve
  • Top hammer drilling