Metals and Materials International

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 702–710 | Cite as

Simulation of κ-Carbide Precipitation Kinetics in Aged Low-Density Fe–Mn–Al–C Steels and Its Effects on Strengthening

  • Jaeeun Lee
  • Siwook Park
  • Hwangsun Kim
  • Seong-Jun Park
  • Keunho Lee
  • Mi-Young Kim
  • Phaniraj P. Madakashira
  • Heung Nam Han


Fe–Al–Mn–C alloy systems are low-density austenite-based steels that show excellent mechanical properties. After aging such steels at adequate temperatures for adequate time, nano-scale precipitates such as κ-carbide form, which have profound effects on the mechanical properties. Therefore, it is important to predict the amount and size of the generated κ-carbide precipitates in order to control the mechanical properties of low-density steels. In this study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of aged low-density austenitic steel were characterized. Thermo-kinetic simulations of the aging process were used to predict the size and phase fraction of κ-carbide after different aging periods, and these results were validated by comparison with experimental data derived from dark-field transmission electron microscopy images. Based on these results, models for precipitation strengthening based on different mechanisms were assessed. The measured increase in the strength of aged specimens was compared with that calculated from the models to determine the exact precipitation strengthening mechanism.


Low-density steel Aging κ-Carbide Precipitation Numerical simulation 



This work was supported by the Materials and Components Technology Development Program (10048157) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE, Korea), and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (MSIP) (No. NRF-2015R1A5A1037627). The Institute of Engineering Research at Seoul National University provided research facilities for this work.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Institute of Metals and Materials 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaeeun Lee
    • 1
  • Siwook Park
    • 1
  • Hwangsun Kim
    • 1
  • Seong-Jun Park
    • 2
  • Keunho Lee
    • 3
  • Mi-Young Kim
    • 1
  • Phaniraj P. Madakashira
    • 1
  • Heung Nam Han
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Research Institute of Advanced MaterialsSeoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Advanced Metallic Materials Division, Ferrous Alloy DepartmentKorea Institute of Materials ScienceChangwonRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Agency for Defense DevolopmentYuseonggu, DaejeonRepublic of Korea

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